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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. The Cellular Foundation of Life
    1. 1 Introduction to Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      3. 1.2 The Process of Science
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 Chemistry of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Biological Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Cell Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 How Cells Are Studied
      3. 3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      4. 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 3.4 The Cell Membrane
      6. 3.5 Passive Transport
      7. 3.6 Active Transport
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 How Cells Obtain Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 4.2 Glycolysis
      4. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      5. 4.4 Fermentation
      6. 4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 5 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2. Cell Division and Genetics
    1. 6 Reproduction at the Cellular Level
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Genome
      3. 6.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      5. 6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 7 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
      3. 7.2 Meiosis
      4. 7.3 Errors in Meiosis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 8 Patterns of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
      3. 8.2 Laws of Inheritance
      4. 8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
    1. 9 Molecular Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 The Structure of DNA
      3. 9.2 DNA Replication
      4. 9.3 Transcription
      5. 9.4 Translation
      6. 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 10 Biotechnology
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
      3. 10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture
      4. 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4. Evolution and the Diversity of Life
    1. 11 Evolution and Its Processes
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Discovering How Populations Change
      3. 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
      4. 11.3 Evidence of Evolution
      5. 11.4 Speciation
      6. 11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Diversity of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
      4. 13.3 Protists
      5. 13.4 Fungi
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 Diversity of Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
      3. 14.2 Seedless Plants
      4. 14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
      5. 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Diversity of Animals
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
      4. 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods
      5. 15.4 Mollusks and Annelids
      6. 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
      7. 15.6 Vertebrates
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 16 The Body’s Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation
      3. 16.2 Digestive System
      4. 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
      5. 16.4 Endocrine System
      6. 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
      7. 16.6 Nervous System
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 17 The Immune System and Disease
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Viruses
      3. 17.2 Innate Immunity
      4. 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
      5. 17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 18 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
      3. 18.2 Development and Organogenesis
      4. 18.3 Human Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6. Ecology
    1. 19 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
      3. 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation
      4. 19.3 The Human Population
      5. 19.4 Community Ecology
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 20 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Waterford's Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      3. 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
      4. 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 21 Conservation and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
      3. 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
      4. 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  9. B | Geological Time
  10. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  11. Index
Amoebozoa
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains the amoebas and slime molds
anaerobic
refers to organisms that grow without oxygen
anoxic
without oxygen
Archaeplastida
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains land plants, green algae, and red algae
Ascomycota
(sac fungi) a division of fungi that store spores in a sac called ascus
basidiomycota
(club fungi) a division of fungi that produce club shaped structures, basidia, which contain spores
biofilm
a microbial community that is held together by a gummy-textured matrix
bioremediation
the use of microbial metabolism to remove pollutants
Black Death
a devastating pandemic that is believed to have been an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis
botulism
a disease produce by the toxin of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum
capsule
an external structure that enables a prokaryote to attach to surfaces and protects it from dehydration
Chromalveolata
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains the dinoflagellates, ciliates, the brown algae, diatoms, and water molds
Chytridiomycota
(chytrids) a primitive division of fungi that live in water and produce gametes with flagella
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits while the other member is not affected
conjugation
the process by which prokaryotes move DNA from one individual to another using a pilus
cyanobacteria
bacteria that evolved from early phototrophs and oxygenated the atmosphere; also known as blue-green algae
endosymbiosis
the engulfment of one cell by another such that the engulfed cell survives and both cells benefit; the process responsible for the evolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotes
epidemic
a disease that occurs in an unusually high number of individuals in a population at the same time
Excavata
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains flagellated single-celled organisms with a feeding groove
extremophile
an organism that grows under extreme or harsh conditions
foodborne disease
any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, or of the pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or other parasites that contaminate food
Glomeromycota
a group of fungi that form symbiotic relationships with the roots of trees
Gram-negative
describes a bacterium whose cell wall contains little peptidoglycan but has an outer membrane
Gram-positive
describes a bacterium that contains mainly peptidoglycan in its cell walls
hydrothermal vent
a fissure in Earth’s surface that releases geothermally heated water
hypha
a fungal filament composed of one or more cells
lichen
the close association of a fungus with a photosynthetic alga or bacterium that benefits both partners
microbial mat
a multi-layered sheet of prokaryotes that may include bacteria and archaea
mold
a tangle of visible mycelia with a fuzzy appearance
MRSA
(methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) a very dangerous Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to antibiotics
mycelium
a mass of fungal hyphae
mycorrhiza
a mutualistic association between fungi and vascular plant roots
mycosis
a fungal infection
Opisthokonta
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains the fungi, animals, and choanoflagellates
pandemic
a widespread, usually worldwide, epidemic disease
parasite
an organism that lives on or in another organism and feeds on it, often without killing it
pathogen
an organism, or infectious agent, that causes a disease
pellicle
an outer cell covering composed of interlocking protein strips that function like a flexible coat of armor, preventing cells from being torn or pierced without compromising their range of motion
peptidoglycan
a material composed of polysaccharide chains cross-linked to unusual peptides
phototroph
an organism that uses energy from sunlight
plastid
one of a group of related organelles in plant cells that are involved in the storage of starches, fats, proteins, and pigments
pseudopeptidoglycan
a component of some cell walls of Archaea
Rhizaria
the eukaryotic supergroup that contains organisms that move by amoeboid movement
saprobe
an organism that feeds on dead organic material
septum
the cell wall division between hyphae
stromatolite
a layered sedimentary structure formed by precipitation of minerals by prokaryotes in microbial mats
thallus
a vegetative body of a fungus
transduction
the process by which a bacteriophage moves DNA from one prokaryote to another
transformation
a mechanism of genetic change in prokaryotes in which DNA present in the environment is taken into the cell and incorporated into the genome
yeast
a general term used to describe unicellular fungi
Zygomycota
(conjugated fungi) the division of fungi that form a zygote contained in a zygospore
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