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Concepts of Biology

Review Questions

Concepts of BiologyReview Questions


Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently discover?

  1. mutation
  2. natural selection
  3. overbreeding
  4. sexual reproduction

Which of the following situations will lead to natural selection?

  1. The seeds of two plants land near each other and one grows larger than the other.
  2. Two types of fish eat the same kind of food, and one is better able to gather food than the other.
  3. Male lions compete for the right to mate with females, with only one possible winner.
  4. all of the above

What is the difference between micro- and macroevolution?

  1. Microevolution describes the evolution of small organisms, such as insects, while macroevolution describes the evolution of large organisms, like people and elephants.
  2. Microevolution describes the evolution of microscopic entities, such as molecules and proteins, while macroevolution describes the evolution of whole organisms.
  3. Microevolution describes the evolution of populations, while macroevolution describes the emergence of new species over long periods of time.
  4. Microevolution describes the evolution of organisms over their lifetimes, while macroevolution describes the evolution of organisms over multiple generations.

Population genetics is the study of ________.

  1. how allele frequencies in a population change over time
  2. populations of cells in an individual
  3. the rate of population growth
  4. how genes affect embryological development

Galápagos medium ground finches are found on Santa Cruz and San Cristóbal islands, which are separated by about 100 km of ocean. Occasionally, individuals from either island fly to the other island to stay. This can alter the allele frequencies of the population through which of the following mechanisms?

  1. natural selection
  2. genetic drift
  3. gene flow
  4. mutation

In which of the following pairs do both evolutionary processes introduce new genetic variation into a population?

  1. natural selection and genetic drift
  2. mutation and gene flow
  3. natural selection and gene flow
  4. gene flow and genetic drift

The wing of a bird and the arm of a human are examples of ________.

  1. vestigial structures
  2. molecular structures
  3. homologous structures
  4. analogous structures

The fact that DNA sequences are more similar in more closely related organisms is evidence of what?

  1. optimal design in organisms
  2. adaptation
  3. mutation
  4. descent with modification

Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?

  1. A flood causes the formation of a new lake.
  2. A storm causes several large trees to fall down.
  3. A mutation causes a new trait to develop.
  4. An injury causes an organism to seek out a new food source.

What is the main difference between dispersal and vicariance?

  1. One leads to allopatric speciation, whereas the other leads to sympatric speciation.
  2. One involves the movement of the organism, whereas the other involves a change in the environment.
  3. One depends on a genetic mutation occurring, whereas the other does not.
  4. One involves closely related organisms, whereas the other involves only individuals of the same species.

Which variable increases the likelihood of allopatric speciation taking place more quickly?

  1. lower rate of mutation
  2. longer distance between divided groups
  3. increased instances of hybrid formation
  4. equivalent numbers of individuals in each population

The word “theory” in theory of evolution is best replaced by ________.

  1. fact
  2. hypothesis
  3. idea
  4. alternate explanation

Why are alternative scientific theories to evolution not taught in public school?

  1. more theories would confuse students
  2. there are no viable scientific alternatives
  3. it is against the law
  4. alternative scientific theories are suppressed by the science establishment
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