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in molecular biology, the process by which two single strands of DNA hydrogen bond at complementary nucleotides to form a double-stranded molecule
an individual protein that is uniquely produced in a diseased state
the use of artificial methods to modify the genetic material of living organisms or cells to produce novel compounds or to perform new functions
the production of an exact copy—specifically, an exact genetic copy—of a gene, cell, or organism
gel electrophoresis
a technique used to separate molecules on the basis of their ability to migrate through a semisolid gel in response to an electric current
gene therapy
the technique used to cure heritable diseases by replacing mutant genes with good genes
genetic engineering
alteration of the genetic makeup of an organism using the molecular methods of biotechnology
genetic map
an outline of genes and their location on a chromosome that is based on recombination frequencies between markers
genetic testing
identifying gene variants in an individual that may lead to a genetic disease in that individual
genetically modified organism (GMO)
an organism whose genome has been artificially changed
the study of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species
the study of the collective genomes of multiple species that grow and interact in an environmental niche
model organism
a species that is studied and used as a model to understand the biological processes in other species represented by the model organism
the study of drug interactions with the genome or proteome; also called toxicogenomics
physical map
a representation of the physical distance between genes or genetic markers
a small circular molecule of DNA found in bacteria that replicates independently of the main bacterial chromosome; plasmids code for some important traits for bacteria and can be used as vectors to transport DNA into bacteria in genetic engineering applications
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique used to make multiple copies of DNA
protein signature
a set of over- or under-expressed proteins characteristic of cells in a particular diseased tissue
study of the function of proteomes
recombinant DNA
a combination of DNA fragments generated by molecular cloning that does not exist in nature
recombinant protein
a protein that is expressed from recombinant DNA molecules
reproductive cloning
cloning of entire organisms
restriction enzyme
an enzyme that recognizes a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA and cuts the DNA double strand at that recognition site, often with a staggered cut leaving short single strands or “sticky” ends
reverse genetics
a form of genetic analysis that manipulates DNA to disrupt or affect the product of a gene to analyze the gene’s function
describing an organism that receives DNA from a different species
whole genome sequencing
a process that determines the nucleotide sequence of an entire genome
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