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College Physics

23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

College Physics23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
  7. 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    1. Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Introduction to Statics and Torque
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Introduction to Fluid Statics
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Introduction to Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction to Thermodynamics
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Introduction to the Physics of Hearing
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    6. 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    7. 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology
    8. 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  22. 21 Circuits and DC Instruments
    1. Introduction to Circuits and DC Instruments
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Introduction to Magnetism
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Introduction to Geometric Optics
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Introduction to Vision and Optical Instruments
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Introduction to Wave Optics
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction to Special Relativity
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Introduction to Quantum Physics
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Introduction to Atomic Physics
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Applications of Nuclear Physics
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction to Particle Physics
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Introduction to Frontiers of Physics
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Index

Impedance

When alone in an AC circuit, inductors, capacitors, and resistors all impede current. How do they behave when all three occur together? Interestingly, their individual resistances in ohms do not simply add. Because inductors and capacitors behave in opposite ways, they partially to totally cancel each other’s effect. Figure 23.48 shows an RLC series circuit with an AC voltage source, the behavior of which is the subject of this section. The crux of the analysis of an RLC circuit is the frequency dependence of XLXL size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {} and XCXC size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {}, and the effect they have on the phase of voltage versus current (established in the preceding section). These give rise to the frequency dependence of the circuit, with important “resonance” features that are the basis of many applications, such as radio tuners.

The figure describes an R LC series circuit. It shows a resistor R connected in series with an inductor L, connected to a capacitor C in series to an A C source V. The voltage of the A C source is given by V equals V zero sine two pi f t. The voltage across R is V R, across L is V L and across C is V C.
Figure 23.48 An RLC series circuit with an AC voltage source.

The combined effect of resistance RR size 12{R} {}, inductive reactance XLXL size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {}, and capacitive reactance XCXC size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {} is defined to be impedance, an AC analogue to resistance in a DC circuit. Current, voltage, and impedance in an RLC circuit are related by an AC version of Ohm’s law:

I 0 = V 0 Z or I rms = V rms Z . I 0 = V 0 Z or I rms = V rms Z . size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } = { {V rSub { size 8{0} } } over {Z} } " or "I rSub { size 8{ ital "rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{ ital "rms"} } } over {Z} } "." } {}
23.63

Here I0I0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the peak current, V0V0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} the peak source voltage, and Z Z is the impedance of the circuit. The units of impedance are ohms, and its effect on the circuit is as you might expect: the greater the impedance, the smaller the current. To get an expression for ZZ size 12{Z} {} in terms of R R , XLXL size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {}, and XCXC size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {}, we will now examine how the voltages across the various components are related to the source voltage. Those voltages are labeled VRVR size 12{V rSub { size 8{R} } } {}, VLVL size 12{V rSub { size 8{L} } } {}, and VCVC size 12{V rSub { size 8{C} } } {} in Figure 23.48.

Conservation of charge requires current to be the same in each part of the circuit at all times, so that we can say the currents in RR size 12{R} {}, LL size 12{L} {}, and CC size 12{C} {} are equal and in phase. But we know from the preceding section that the voltage across the inductor VLVL size 12{V rSub { size 8{L} } } {} leads the current by one-fourth of a cycle, the voltage across the capacitor VCVC size 12{V rSub { size 8{C} } } {} follows the current by one-fourth of a cycle, and the voltage across the resistor VRVR size 12{V rSub { size 8{R} } } {} is exactly in phase with the current. Figure 23.49 shows these relationships in one graph, as well as showing the total voltage around the circuit V=VR+VL+VCV=VR+VL+VC size 12{V=V rSub { size 8{R} } +V rSub { size 8{L} } +V rSub { size 8{C} } } {}, where all four voltages are the instantaneous values. According to Kirchhoff’s loop rule, the total voltage around the circuit V V is also the voltage of the source.

You can see from Figure 23.49 that while VRVR size 12{V rSub { size 8{R} } } {} is in phase with the current, VLVL size 12{V rSub { size 8{L} } } {} leads by 90º 90º , and VCVC size 12{V rSub { size 8{C} } } {} follows by 90º 90º . Thus VLVL size 12{V rSub { size 8{L} } } {} and VCVC size 12{V rSub { size 8{C} } } {} are 180º 180º out of phase (crest to trough) and tend to cancel, although not completely unless they have the same magnitude. Since the peak voltages are not aligned (not in phase), the peak voltage V0V0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} of the source does not equal the sum of the peak voltages across RR size 12{R} {}, LL size 12{L} {}, and CC size 12{C} {}. The actual relationship is

V 0 = V 0R 2 + ( V 0L V 0C ) 2 , V 0 = V 0R 2 + ( V 0L V 0C ) 2 , size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } = sqrt {V rSub { size 8{0R} } "" lSup { size 8{2} } + \( V rSub { size 8{0L} } - V rSub { size 8{0C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } ,} {}
23.64

where V0RV0R size 12{V rSub { size 8{0R} } } {}, V0LV0L size 12{V rSub { size 8{0L} } } {}, and V0CV0C size 12{V rSub { size 8{0C} } } {} are the peak voltages across RR size 12{R} {}, LL size 12{L} {}, and CC size 12{C} {}, respectively. Now, using Ohm’s law and definitions from Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive, we substitute V0=I0ZV0=I0Z size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } =I rSub { size 8{0} } Z} {} into the above, as well as V0R=I0RV0R=I0R size 12{V rSub { size 8{0R} } =I rSub { size 8{0} } R} {}, V0L=I0XLV0L=I0XL size 12{V rSub { size 8{0L} } =I rSub { size 8{0} } X rSub { size 8{L} } } {}, and V0C=I0XCV0C=I0XC size 12{V rSub { size 8{0C} } =I rSub { size 8{0} } X rSub { size 8{C} } } {}, yielding

I0Z= I 0 2 R2 + ( I0XLI0XC)2=I0R2+(XLXC)2.I0Z= I 0 2 R2 + ( I0XLI0XC)2=I0R2+(XLXC)2. size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } Z= sqrt {I rSub { size 8{0} rSup { size 8{2} } } R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( I rSub { size 8{0} } X rSub { size 8{L} } - I rSub { size 8{0} } X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } =I rSub { size 8{0} } sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
23.65

I0I0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } } {} cancels to yield an expression for Z Z :

Z=R2+(XLXC)2,Z=R2+(XLXC)2, size 12{Z= sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
23.66

which is the impedance of an RLC series AC circuit. For circuits without a resistor, take R = 0 R = 0 ; for those without an inductor, take XL=0XL=0 size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } =0} {}; and for those without a capacitor, take XC=0XC=0 size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } =0} {}.

The figure shows graphs showing the relationships of the voltages in an RLC circuit to the current. It has five graphs on the left and two graphs on the right. The first graph on the right is for current I versus time t. Current is plotted along Y axis and time is along X axis. The curve is a smooth progressive sine wave. The second graph is on the right is for voltage V R versus time t. Voltage V R is plotted along Y axis and time is along X axis. The curve is a smooth progressive sine wave. The third graph is on the right is for voltage V L versus time t. Voltage V L is plotted along Y axis and time is along X axis. The curve is a smooth progressive cosine wave. The fourth graph is on the right is for voltage V C versus time t. Voltage V C is plotted along Y axis and time t is along X axis. The curve is a smooth progressive cosine wave starting from negative Y axis. The fifth graph shows the voltage V verses time t for the R L C circuit. Voltage V is plotted along Y axis and time t is along X axis. The curve is a smooth progressive sine wave starting from a point near to origin on negative X axis. The first and the fifth graphs are again shown on the right and their amplitudes and phases compared. The current graph is shown to have a lesser amplitude.
Figure 23.49 This graph shows the relationships of the voltages in an RLC circuit to the current. The voltages across the circuit elements add to equal the voltage of the source, which is seen to be out of phase with the current.

Example 23.12 Calculating Impedance and Current

An RLC series circuit has a 40.0 Ω 40.0 Ω resistor, a 3.00 mH inductor, and a 5.00 μF 5.00 μF capacitor. (a) Find the circuit’s impedance at 60.0 Hz and 10.0 kHz, noting that these frequencies and the values for L L and C C are the same as in Example 23.10 and Example 23.11. (b) If the voltage source has Vrms=120VVrms=120V size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } ="120"`V} {}, what is IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} at each frequency?

Strategy

For each frequency, we use Z=R2+(XLXC)2Z=R2+(XLXC)2 size 12{Z= sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} to find the impedance and then Ohm’s law to find current. We can take advantage of the results of the previous two examples rather than calculate the reactances again.

Solution for (a)

At 60.0 Hz, the values of the reactances were found in Example 23.10 to be XL=1.13ΩXL=1.13Ω size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } =1 "." "13" %OMEGA } {} and in Example 23.11 to be XC=531 Ω XC=531 Ω size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } ="531 " %OMEGA } {}. Entering these and the given 40.0 Ω 40.0 Ω for resistance into Z=R2+(XLXC)2Z=R2+(XLXC)2 size 12{Z= sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} yields

Z = R2+(XLXC)2 = (40.0Ω)2+(1.13Ω531Ω)2 = 531Ω at 60.0 Hz.Z = R2+(XLXC)2 = (40.0Ω)2+(1.13Ω531Ω)2 = 531Ω at 60.0 Hz.alignl { stack { size 12{Z= sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} # " "= sqrt { \( "40" "." 0` %OMEGA \) rSup { size 8{2} } + \( 1 "." "13" %OMEGA - "531" %OMEGA \) rSup { size 8{2} } } {} # " "="531" %OMEGA " at 60" "." "0 Hz" {} } } {}
23.67

Similarly, at 10.0 kHz, XL=188ΩXL=188Ω size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } ="188" %OMEGA } {} and XC=3.18ΩXC=3.18Ω size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } =3 "." "18" %OMEGA } {}, so that

Z = (40.0Ω)2+(188Ω3.18Ω)2 = 190Ω at 10.0 kHz. Z = (40.0Ω)2+(188Ω3.18Ω)2 = 190Ω at 10.0 kHz.alignl { stack { size 12{Z= sqrt { \( "40" "." 0` %OMEGA \) rSup { size 8{2} } + \( "188" %OMEGA - 3 "." "18" %OMEGA \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} # " "="190" %OMEGA " at 10" "." "0 kHz" {} } } {}
23.68

Discussion for (a)

In both cases, the result is nearly the same as the largest value, and the impedance is definitely not the sum of the individual values. It is clear that XLXL size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {} dominates at high frequency and XCXC size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {} dominates at low frequency.

Solution for (b)

The current IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} can be found using the AC version of Ohm’s law in Equation Irms=Vrms/ZIrms=Vrms/Z size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } =V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } /Z} {}:

Irms=VrmsZ=120 V531 Ω=0.226 AIrms=VrmsZ=120 V531 Ω=0.226 A size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } over {Z} } = { {"120"" V"} over {"531 " %OMEGA } } =0 "." "226"" A"} {} at 60.0 Hz

Finally, at 10.0 kHz, we find

Irms=VrmsZ=120 V190 Ω=0.633 AIrms=VrmsZ=120 V190 Ω=0.633 A size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } over {Z} } = { {"120"" V"} over {"190 " %OMEGA } } =0 "." "633"" A"} {} at 10.0 kHz

Discussion for (a)

The current at 60.0 Hz is the same (to three digits) as found for the capacitor alone in Example 23.11. The capacitor dominates at low frequency. The current at 10.0 kHz is only slightly different from that found for the inductor alone in Example 23.10. The inductor dominates at high frequency.

Resonance in RLC Series AC Circuits

How does an RLC circuit behave as a function of the frequency of the driving voltage source? Combining Ohm’s law, Irms=Vrms/ZIrms=Vrms/Z size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } =V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } /Z} {}, and the expression for impedance Z Z from Z=R2+(XLXC)2Z=R2+(XLXC)2 size 12{Z= sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} gives

Irms=VrmsR2+(XLXC)2.Irms=VrmsR2+(XLXC)2. size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } over { sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + \( X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} } \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } } } {}
23.69

The reactances vary with frequency, with XLXL size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {} large at high frequencies and XCXC size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {} large at low frequencies, as we have seen in three previous examples. At some intermediate frequency f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {}, the reactances will be equal and cancel, giving Z=RZ=R size 12{Z=R} {} —this is a minimum value for impedance, and a maximum value for IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} results. We can get an expression for f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} by taking

XL=XC.XL=XC. size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } =X rSub { size 8{C} } } {}
23.70

Substituting the definitions of XLXL size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {} and XCXC size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {},

2πf0L=12πf0C.2πf0L=12πf0C. size 12{2πf rSub { size 8{0} } L= { {1} over {2πf rSub { size 8{0} } C} } } {}
23.71

Solving this expression for f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} yields

f0=1LC,f0=1LC, size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } = { {1} over {2π sqrt { ital "LC"} } } } {}
23.72

where f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the resonant frequency of an RLC series circuit. This is also the natural frequency at which the circuit would oscillate if not driven by the voltage source. At f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {}, the effects of the inductor and capacitor cancel, so that Z=RZ=R size 12{Z=R} {}, and IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} is a maximum.

Resonance in AC circuits is analogous to mechanical resonance, where resonance is defined to be a forced oscillation—in this case, forced by the voltage source—at the natural frequency of the system. The receiver in a radio is an RLC circuit that oscillates best at its f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {}. A variable capacitor is often used to adjust f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} to receive a desired frequency and to reject others. Figure 23.50 is a graph of current as a function of frequency, illustrating a resonant peak in IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} at f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {}. The two curves are for two different circuits, which differ only in the amount of resistance in them. The peak is lower and broader for the higher-resistance circuit. Thus the higher-resistance circuit does not resonate as strongly and would not be as selective in a radio receiver, for example.

The figure describes a graph of current I versus frequency f. Current I r m s is plotted along Y axis and frequency f is plotted along X axis. Two curves are shown. The upper curve is for small resistance and lower curve is for large resistance. Both the curves have a smooth rise and a fall. The peaks are marked for frequency f zero. The curve for smaller resistance has a higher value of peak than the curve for large resistance.
Figure 23.50 A graph of current versus frequency for two RLC series circuits differing only in the amount of resistance. Both have a resonance at f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {}, but that for the higher resistance is lower and broader. The driving AC voltage source has a fixed amplitude V0V0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {}.

Example 23.13 Calculating Resonant Frequency and Current

For the same RLC series circuit having a 40.0 Ω 40.0 Ω resistor, a 3.00 mH inductor, and a 5.00 μF 5.00 μF capacitor: (a) Find the resonant frequency. (b) Calculate IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} at resonance if VrmsVrms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} is 120 V.

Strategy

The resonant frequency is found by using the expression in f0=1LCf0=1LC size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } = { {1} over {2π sqrt { ital "LC"} } } } {}. The current at that frequency is the same as if the resistor alone were in the circuit.

Solution for (a)

Entering the given values for L L and C C into the expression given for f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} in f0=1LCf0=1LC size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } = { {1} over {2π sqrt { ital "LC"} } } } {} yields

f0 = 1LC = 1(3.00×103 H)(5.00×106 F)=1.30 kHz. f0 = 1LC = 1(3.00×103 H)(5.00×106 F)=1.30 kHz.alignl { stack { size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } = { {1} over {2π sqrt { ital "LC"} } } } {} # " "= { {1} over {2π sqrt { \( 3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " H" \) \( 5 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } " F" \) } } } =1 "." "30"" kHz" {} } } {}
23.73

Discussion for (a)

We see that the resonant frequency is between 60.0 Hz and 10.0 kHz, the two frequencies chosen in earlier examples. This was to be expected, since the capacitor dominated at the low frequency and the inductor dominated at the high frequency. Their effects are the same at this intermediate frequency.

Solution for (b)

The current is given by Ohm’s law. At resonance, the two reactances are equal and cancel, so that the impedance equals the resistance alone. Thus,

Irms=VrmsZ=120 V40.0 Ω=3.00 A.Irms=VrmsZ=120 V40.0 Ω=3.00 A. size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } over {Z} } = { {"120"" V"} over {"40" "." "0 " %OMEGA } } =3 "." "00"" A"} {}
23.74

Discussion for (b)

At resonance, the current is greater than at the higher and lower frequencies considered for the same circuit in the preceding example.

Power in RLC Series AC Circuits

If current varies with frequency in an RLC circuit, then the power delivered to it also varies with frequency. But the average power is not simply current times voltage, as it is in purely resistive circuits. As was seen in Figure 23.49, voltage and current are out of phase in an RLC circuit. There is a phase angle ϕϕ size 12{ϕ} {} between the source voltage VV size 12{V} {} and the current II size 12{I} {}, which can be found from

cosϕ=RZ.cosϕ=RZ. size 12{"cos"ϕ= { {R} over {Z} } } {}
23.75

For example, at the resonant frequency or in a purely resistive circuit Z=RZ=R size 12{Z=R} {}, so that cosϕ=1cosϕ=1 size 12{"cos"ϕ=1} {}. This implies that ϕ=0ºϕ=0º size 12{ϕ=0 rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} and that voltage and current are in phase, as expected for resistors. At other frequencies, average power is less than at resonance. This is both because voltage and current are out of phase and because IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} is lower. The fact that source voltage and current are out of phase affects the power delivered to the circuit. It can be shown that the average power is

P ave = I rms V rms cos ϕ , P ave = I rms V rms cos ϕ , size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } =I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } "cos"ϕ} {}
23.76

Thus cosϕcosϕ size 12{"cos"ϕ} {} is called the power factor, which can range from 0 to 1. Power factors near 1 are desirable when designing an efficient motor, for example. At the resonant frequency, cosϕ=1cosϕ=1 size 12{"cos"ϕ=1} {}.

Example 23.14 Calculating the Power Factor and Power

For the same RLC series circuit having a 40.0 Ω 40.0 Ω resistor, a 3.00 mH inductor, a 5.00 μF 5.00 μF capacitor, and a voltage source with a V rms V rms of 120 V: (a) Calculate the power factor and phase angle for f=60.0Hzf=60.0Hz size 12{f="60" "." 0`"Hz"} {}. (b) What is the average power at 50.0 Hz? (c) Find the average power at the circuit’s resonant frequency.

Strategy and Solution for (a)

The power factor at 60.0 Hz is found from

cosϕ=RZ.cosϕ=RZ. size 12{"cos"ϕ= { {R} over {Z} } } {}
23.77

We know Z = 531 Ω Z = 531 Ω from Example 23.12, so that

cosϕ=40.0Ω531 Ω=0.0753 at 60.0 Hz.cosϕ=40.0Ω531 Ω=0.0753 at 60.0 Hz. size 12{"cos"Ø= { {"40" "." 0 %OMEGA } over {5"31 " %OMEGA } } =0 "." "0753"} {}
23.78

This small value indicates the voltage and current are significantly out of phase. In fact, the phase angle is

ϕ=cos10.0753=85.7º at 60.0 Hz.ϕ=cos10.0753=85.7º at 60.0 Hz. size 12{ϕ="cos" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } 0 "." "0753"="85" "." 7 rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {}
23.79

Discussion for (a)

The phase angle is close to 90º 90º , consistent with the fact that the capacitor dominates the circuit at this low frequency (a pure RC circuit has its voltage and current 90º 90º out of phase).

Strategy and Solution for (b)

The average power at 60.0 Hz is

Pave=IrmsVrmscosϕ.Pave=IrmsVrmscosϕ. size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } =I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } "cos"ϕ} {}
23.80

IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} was found to be 0.226 A in Example 23.12. Entering the known values gives

Pave=(0.226 A)(120 V)(0.0753)=2.04 W at 60.0 Hz.Pave=(0.226 A)(120 V)(0.0753)=2.04 W at 60.0 Hz. size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = \( 0 "." "226"" A" \) \( "120"" V" \) \( 0 "." "0753" \) =2 "." "04"" W"} {}
23.81

Strategy and Solution for (c)

At the resonant frequency, we know cosϕ=1cosϕ=1 size 12{"cos"ϕ=1} {}, and IrmsIrms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} was found to be 6.00 A in Example 23.13. Thus,

Pave=(3.00 A)(120 V)(1)=360 WPave=(3.00 A)(120 V)(1)=360 W size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = \( 3 "." "00"" A" \) \( "120"" V" \) \( 1 \) ="350"" W"} {} at resonance (1.30 kHz)

Discussion

Both the current and the power factor are greater at resonance, producing significantly greater power than at higher and lower frequencies.

Power delivered to an RLC series AC circuit is dissipated by the resistance alone. The inductor and capacitor have energy input and output but do not dissipate it out of the circuit. Rather they transfer energy back and forth to one another, with the resistor dissipating exactly what the voltage source puts into the circuit. This assumes no significant electromagnetic radiation from the inductor and capacitor, such as radio waves. Such radiation can happen and may even be desired, as we will see in the next chapter on electromagnetic radiation, but it can also be suppressed as is the case in this chapter. The circuit is analogous to the wheel of a car driven over a corrugated road as shown in Figure 23.51. The regularly spaced bumps in the road are analogous to the voltage source, driving the wheel up and down. The shock absorber is analogous to the resistance damping and limiting the amplitude of the oscillation. Energy within the system goes back and forth between kinetic (analogous to maximum current, and energy stored in an inductor) and potential energy stored in the car spring (analogous to no current, and energy stored in the electric field of a capacitor). The amplitude of the wheels’ motion is a maximum if the bumps in the road are hit at the resonant frequency.

The figure describes the path of motion of a wheel of a car. The front wheel of a car is shown. A shock absorber attached to the wheel is also shown. The path of motion is shown as vertically up and down.
Figure 23.51 The forced but damped motion of the wheel on the car spring is analogous to an RLC series AC circuit. The shock absorber damps the motion and dissipates energy, analogous to the resistance in an RLC circuit. The mass and spring determine the resonant frequency.

A pure LC circuit with negligible resistance oscillates at f0f0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {}, the same resonant frequency as an RLC circuit. It can serve as a frequency standard or clock circuit—for example, in a digital wristwatch. With a very small resistance, only a very small energy input is necessary to maintain the oscillations. The circuit is analogous to a car with no shock absorbers. Once it starts oscillating, it continues at its natural frequency for some time. Figure 23.52 shows the analogy between an LC circuit and a mass on a spring.

The figure describes four stages of an L C oscillation circuit compared to a mass oscillating on a spring. Part a of the figure shows a mass attached to a horizontal spring. The spring is attached to a fixed support on the left. The mass is at rest as shown by velocity v equals zero. The energy of the spring is shown as potential energy. This is compared with a circuit containing a capacitor C and inductor L connected together. The energy is shown as stored in the electric field E of the capacitor between the plates. One plate is shown to have a negative polarity and other plate is shown to have a positive polarity. Part b of the figure shows a mass attached to a horizontal spring which is attached to a fixed support on the left. The mass is shown to move horizontal toward the fixed support with velocity v. The energy here is stored as the kinetic energy of the spring. This is compared with a circuit containing a capacitor C and inductor L connected together. A current is shown in the circuit and energy is stored as magnetic field B in the inductor. Part c of the figure shows a mass attached to a horizontal spring which is attached to a fixed support on the left. The spring is shown as not stretched and the energy is shown as potential energy of the spring. The mass is show to have displaced toward left. This is compared with a circuit containing a capacitor C and inductor L connected together. The energy is shown as stored in the electric field E of the capacitor between the plates. One plate is shown to have a negative polarity and other plate is shown to have a positive polarity. But the polarities are reverse of the first case in part a. Part d of the figure shows a mass attached to a horizontal spring which is attached to a fixed support on the left. The mass is shown to move toward right with velocity v. the energy of the spring is kinetic energy. This is compared with a circuit containing a capacitor C and inductor L connected together. A current is shown in the circuit opposite to that in part b and energy is stored as magnetic field B in the inductor.
Figure 23.52 An LC circuit is analogous to a mass oscillating on a spring with no friction and no driving force. Energy moves back and forth between the inductor and capacitor, just as it moves from kinetic to potential in the mass-spring system.
PhET Explorations: Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab

Build circuits with capacitors, inductors, resistors and AC or DC voltage sources, and inspect them using lab instruments such as voltmeters and ammeters.

Figure 23.53
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