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College Physics

14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity

College Physics14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
  7. 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    1. Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Introduction to Statics and Torque
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Introduction to Fluid Statics
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Introduction to Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction to Thermodynamics
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Introduction to the Physics of Hearing
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    6. 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    7. 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology
    8. 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  22. 21 Circuits and DC Instruments
    1. Introduction to Circuits and DC Instruments
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Introduction to Magnetism
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Introduction to Geometric Optics
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Introduction to Vision and Optical Instruments
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Introduction to Wave Optics
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction to Special Relativity
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Introduction to Quantum Physics
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Introduction to Atomic Physics
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Applications of Nuclear Physics
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction to Particle Physics
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Introduction to Frontiers of Physics
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Index

One of the major effects of heat transfer is temperature change: heating increases the temperature while cooling decreases it. We assume that there is no phase change and that no work is done on or by the system. Experiments show that the transferred heat depends on three factors—the change in temperature, the mass of the system, and the substance and phase of the substance.

Figure a shows a copper-colored cylinder of mass m and temperature change delta T. The heat Q, shown as a wavy rightward horizontal arrow, is transferred to the cylinder from the left. To the right of this image is a similar image, except that the heat transferred Q prime is twice the heat Q. The temperature change of this second cylinder, which is also labeled m, is two delta T. This cylinder is surrounded by small black wavy lines radiating outward. Figure b shows the same two cylinders as in Figure a. The left cylinder is labeled m and delta T and has a wavy heat arrow pointing at it from the left that is labeled Q. The right cylinder is labeled two m and delta T and has a wavy heat arrow pointing to it from the left labeled Q prime equals two Q. Figure c shows the same copper cylinder of mass m and with temperature change delta T, with heat Q being transferred to it. To the right of this cylinder, Q prime equals ten point eight times Q is being transferred to another cylinder filled with water whose mass and change in temperature are the same as that of the copper cylinder.
Figure 14.4 The heat QQ size 12{Q} {} transferred to cause a temperature change depends on the magnitude of the temperature change, the mass of the system, and the substance and phase involved. (a) The amount of heat transferred is directly proportional to the temperature change. To double the temperature change of a mass mm size 12{m} {}, you need to add twice the heat. (b) The amount of heat transferred is also directly proportional to the mass. To cause an equivalent temperature change in a doubled mass, you need to add twice the heat. (c) The amount of heat transferred depends on the substance and its phase. If it takes an amount QQ size 12{Q} {} of heat to cause a temperature change ΔTΔT size 12{ΔT} {} in a given mass of copper, it will take 10.8 times that amount of heat to cause the equivalent temperature change in the same mass of water assuming no phase change in either substance.

The dependence on temperature change and mass are easily understood. Owing to the fact that the (average) kinetic energy of an atom or molecule is proportional to the absolute temperature, the internal energy of a system is proportional to the absolute temperature and the number of atoms or molecules. Owing to the fact that the transferred heat is equal to the change in the internal energy, the heat is proportional to the mass of the substance and the temperature change. The transferred heat also depends on the substance so that, for example, the heat necessary to raise the temperature is less for alcohol than for water. For the same substance, the transferred heat also depends on the phase (gas, liquid, or solid).

Heat Transfer and Temperature Change

The quantitative relationship between heat transfer and temperature change contains all three factors:

Q = mc Δ T , Q = mc Δ T , size 12{Q= ital "mc"ΔT,} {}
14.2

where QQ size 12{Q} {} is the symbol for heat transfer, mm size 12{m} {} is the mass of the substance, and ΔTΔT is the change in temperature. The symbol cc size 12{c} {} stands for specific heat and depends on the material and phase. The specific heat is the amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of 1.00 kg of mass by 1.00ºC1.00ºC. The specific heat cc is a property of the substance; its SI unit is J/(kgK)J/(kgK) or J/(kg⋅ºC).J/(kg⋅ºC). Recall that the temperature change (ΔT)(ΔT) is the same in units of kelvin and degrees Celsius. If heat transfer is measured in kilocalories, then the unit of specific heat is kcal/(kg⋅ºC).kcal/(kg⋅ºC).

Values of specific heat must generally be looked up in tables, because there is no simple way to calculate them. In general, the specific heat also depends on the temperature. Table 14.1 lists representative values of specific heat for various substances. Except for gases, the temperature and volume dependence of the specific heat of most substances is weak. We see from this table that the specific heat of water is five times that of glass and ten times that of iron, which means that it takes five times as much heat to raise the temperature of water the same amount as for glass and ten times as much heat to raise the temperature of water as for iron. In fact, water has one of the largest specific heats of any material, which is important for sustaining life on Earth.

Example 14.1 Calculating the Required Heat: Heating Water in an Aluminum Pan

A 0.500 kg aluminum pan on a stove is used to heat 0.250 liters of water from 20.0ºC20.0ºC to 80.0ºC80.0ºC. (a) How much heat is required? What percentage of the heat is used to raise the temperature of (b) the pan and (c) the water?

Strategy

The pan and the water are always at the same temperature. When you put the pan on the stove, the temperature of the water and the pan is increased by the same amount. We use the equation for the heat transfer for the given temperature change and mass of water and aluminum. The specific heat values for water and aluminum are given in Table 14.1.

Solution

Because water is in thermal contact with the aluminum, the pan and the water are at the same temperature.

  1. Calculate the temperature difference:
    ΔT=TfTi=60.0ºC.ΔT=TfTi=60.0ºC.
    14.3
  2. Calculate the mass of water. Because the density of water is 1000kg/m31000kg/m3, one liter of water has a mass of 1 kg, and the mass of 0.250 liters of water is mw=0.250kgmw=0.250kg size 12{m rSub { size 8{w} } =0 "." "25"`"kg"} {}.
  3. Calculate the heat transferred to the water. Use the specific heat of water in Table 14.1:
    Qw=mwcwΔT=0.250kg4186J/kgºC60.0ºC=62.8 kJ.Qw=mwcwΔT=0.250kg4186J/kgºC60.0ºC=62.8 kJ.
    14.4
  4. Calculate the heat transferred to the aluminum. Use the specific heat for aluminum in Table 14.1:
    QAl=mAlcAlΔT=0.500 kg900 J/kgºC60.0ºC = 27.0 × 10 4 J = 27.0 kJ.QAl=mAlcAlΔT=0.500 kg900 J/kgºC60.0ºC = 27.0 × 10 4 J = 27.0 kJ.
    14.5
  5. Compare the percentage of heat going into the pan versus that going into the water. First, find the total transferred heat:
    QTotal=QW+QAl=62.8kJ+ 27.0kJ = 89.8kJ.QTotal=QW+QAl=62.8kJ+ 27.0kJ = 89.8kJ. size 12{Q rSub { size 8{"Total"} } =Q rSub { size 8{W} } +Q rSub { size 8{"Al"} } ="62" "." 8`"kJ "+" 89" "." 5`"kJ = 152" "." 3`"kJ"} {}
    14.6

Thus, the amount of heat going into heating the pan is

27.0kJ89.8kJ×100%=30.1%,27.0kJ89.8kJ×100%=30.1%, size 12{ { {"62" "." 8`"kJ"} over {"152" "." 3`"kJ"} } times "100"%="41"%} {}
14.7

and the amount going into heating the water is

62 . 8 kJ 89 . 8 kJ × 100% = 69.9% . 62 . 8 kJ 89 . 8 kJ × 100% = 69.9% . size 12{ { {"62" "." 8`"kJ"} over {"89" "." 8`"kJ"} } times "100"%="69.9"% "." } {}
14.8

Discussion

In this example, the heat transferred to the container is a significant fraction of the total transferred heat. Although the mass of the pan is twice that of the water, the specific heat of water is over four times greater than that of aluminum. Therefore, it takes a bit more than twice the heat to achieve the given temperature change for the water as compared to the aluminum pan.

The figure shows a truck coming from the left and moving on a road which is sloping downhill to the right. Smoke is coming from the area of the wheels of the truck.
Figure 14.5 The smoking brakes on this truck are a visible evidence of the mechanical equivalent of heat.

Example 14.2 Calculating the Temperature Increase from the Work Done on a Substance: Truck Brakes Overheat on Downhill Runs

Truck brakes used to control speed on a downhill run do work, converting gravitational potential energy into increased internal energy (higher temperature) of the brake material. This conversion prevents the gravitational potential energy from being converted into kinetic energy of the truck. The problem is that the mass of the truck is large compared with that of the brake material absorbing the energy, and the temperature increase may occur too fast for sufficient heat to transfer from the brakes to the environment.

Calculate the temperature increase of 100 kg of brake material with an average specific heat of 800 J/kgºC800 J/kgºC if the material retains 10% of the energy from a 10,000-kg truck descending 75.0 m (in vertical displacement) at a constant speed.

Strategy

If the brakes are not applied, gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. When brakes are applied, gravitational potential energy is converted into internal energy of the brake material. We first calculate the gravitational potential energy (Mgh)(Mgh) size 12{ \( ital "Mgh" \) } {} that the entire truck loses in its descent and then find the temperature increase produced in the brake material alone.

Solution

  1. Calculate the change in gravitational potential energy as the truck goes downhill
    Mgh=10,000 kg9.80 m/s275.0 m=7.35×106J.Mgh=10,000 kg9.80 m/s275.0 m=7.35×106J.
    14.9
  2. Calculate the temperature from the heat transferred using Q= MghQ= Mgh size 12{Q"= " ital "Mgh"} {} and
    ΔT=Qmc,ΔT=Qmc, size 12{ΔT= { {Q} over { ital "mc"} } } {}
    14.10

    where mm is the mass of the brake material. Insert the values m=100 kgm=100 kg and c=800 J/kgºCc=800 J/kgºC to find

    ΔT= 7.35×105J100 kg800 J/kgºC=9.2ºC.ΔT= 7.35×105J100 kg800 J/kgºC=9.2ºC.
    14.11

Discussion

This same idea underlies the recent hybrid technology of cars, where mechanical energy (gravitational potential energy) is converted by the brakes into electrical energy (battery).

Substances Specific heat (c)
Solids J/kg⋅ºC kcal/kg⋅ºC2
Aluminum 900 0.215
Asbestos 800 0.19
Concrete, granite (average) 840 0.20
Copper 387 0.0924
Glass 840 0.20
Gold 129 0.0308
Human body (average at 37 °C) 3500 0.83
Ice (average, -50°C to 0°C) 2090 0.50
Iron, steel 452 0.108
Lead 128 0.0305
Silver 235 0.0562
Wood 1700 0.4
Liquids
Benzene 1740 0.415
Ethanol 2450 0.586
Glycerin 2410 0.576
Mercury 139 0.0333
Water (15.0 °C) 4186 1.000
Gases 3
Air (dry) 721 (1015) 0.172 (0.242)
Ammonia 1670 (2190) 0.399 (0.523)
Carbon dioxide 638 (833) 0.152 (0.199)
Nitrogen 739 (1040) 0.177 (0.248)
Oxygen 651 (913) 0.156 (0.218)
Steam (100°C) 1520 (2020) 0.363 (0.482)
Table 14.1 Specific Heats1 of Various Substances

Note that Example 14.2 is an illustration of the mechanical equivalent of heat. Alternatively, the temperature increase could be produced by a blow torch instead of mechanically.

Example 14.3 Calculating the Final Temperature When Heat Is Transferred Between Two Bodies: Pouring Cold Water in a Hot Pan

Suppose you pour 0.250 kg of 20.0ºC20.0ºC water (about a cup) into a 0.500-kg aluminum pan off the stove with a temperature of 150ºC150ºC. Assume that the pan is placed on an insulated pad and that a negligible amount of water boils off. What is the temperature when the water and pan reach thermal equilibrium a short time later?

Strategy

The pan is placed on an insulated pad so that little heat transfer occurs with the surroundings. Originally the pan and water are not in thermal equilibrium: the pan is at a higher temperature than the water. Heat transfer then restores thermal equilibrium once the water and pan are in contact. Because heat transfer between the pan and water takes place rapidly, the mass of evaporated water is negligible and the magnitude of the heat lost by the pan is equal to the heat gained by the water. The exchange of heat stops once a thermal equilibrium between the pan and the water is achieved. The heat exchange can be written as Qhot=QcoldQhot=Qcold size 12{ \lline Q rSub { size 8{"hot"} } \lline =Q rSub { size 8{"cold"} } } {}.

Solution

  1. Use the equation for heat transfer Q=mcΔTQ=mcΔT size 12{Q= ital "mc"ΔT} {} to express the heat lost by the aluminum pan in terms of the mass of the pan, the specific heat of aluminum, the initial temperature of the pan, and the final temperature:
    Qhot=mAlcAlTf150ºC.Qhot=mAlcAlTf150ºC.
    14.12
  2. Express the heat gained by the water in terms of the mass of the water, the specific heat of water, the initial temperature of the water and the final temperature:
    Qcold=mWcWTf20.0ºC.Qcold=mWcWTf20.0ºC.
    14.13
  3. Note that Qhot<0Qhot<0 size 12{Q rSub { size 8{"hot"} } <0} {} and Qcold>0Qcold>0 size 12{Q rSub { size 8{"cold"} } >0} {} and that they must sum to zero because the heat lost by the hot pan must be the same as the heat gained by the cold water:
    Q cold + Q hot = 0, Q cold = –Q hot , m W c W T f 20.0ºC = −m Al c Al T f 150ºC. Q cold + Q hot = 0, Q cold = –Q hot , m W c W T f 20.0ºC = −m Al c Al T f 150ºC.
    14.14
  4. Bring all terms involving TfTf size 12{T rSub { size 8{f} } } {} on the left hand side and all other terms on the right hand side. Solve for TfTf size 12{T rSub { size 8{f} } } {},
    Tf=mAlcAl150ºC+mWcW20.0ºCmAlcAl+mWcW,Tf=mAlcAl150ºC+mWcW20.0ºCmAlcAl+mWcW,
    14.15

    and insert the numerical values:

    T f = 0.500 kg 900 J/kgºC 150ºC + 0.250 kg 4186 J/kgºC 20.0ºC 0.500 kg 900 J/kgºC + 0.250 kg 4186 J/kgºC = 88430 J 1496.5 J/ºC = 59 .1ºC. T f = 0.500 kg 900 J/kgºC 150ºC + 0.250 kg 4186 J/kgºC 20.0ºC 0.500 kg 900 J/kgºC + 0.250 kg 4186 J/kgºC = 88430 J 1496.5 J/ºC = 59 .1ºC.
    14.16

Discussion

This is a typical calorimetry problem—two bodies at different temperatures are brought in contact with each other and exchange heat until a common temperature is reached. Why is the final temperature so much closer to 20.0ºC20.0ºC than 150ºC150ºC? The reason is that water has a greater specific heat than most common substances and thus undergoes a small temperature change for a given heat transfer. A large body of water, such as a lake, requires a large amount of heat to increase its temperature appreciably. This explains why the temperature of a lake stays relatively constant during a day even when the temperature change of the air is large. However, the water temperature does change over longer times (e.g., summer to winter).

Take-Home Experiment: Temperature Change of Land and Water

What heats faster, land or water?

To study differences in heat capacity:

  • Place equal masses of dry sand (or soil) and water at the same temperature into two small jars. (The average density of soil or sand is about 1.6 times that of water, so you can achieve approximately equal masses by using 50% 50% size 12{"50% "} {} more water by volume.)
  • Heat both (using an oven or a heat lamp) for the same amount of time.
  • Record the final temperature of the two masses.
  • Now bring both jars to the same temperature by heating for a longer period of time.
  • Remove the jars from the heat source and measure their temperature every 5 minutes for about 30 minutes.

Which sample cools off the fastest? This activity replicates the phenomena responsible for land breezes and sea breezes.

Check Your Understanding

If 25 kJ is necessary to raise the temperature of a block from 25ºC25ºC to 30ºC30ºC, how much heat is necessary to heat the block from 45ºC45ºC to 50ºC50ºC?

Solution

The heat transfer depends only on the temperature difference. Since the temperature differences are the same in both cases, the same 25 kJ is necessary in the second case.

Footnotes

  • 1 The values for solids and liquids are at constant volume and at 25ºC25ºC, except as noted.
  • 2 These values are identical in units of cal/g⋅ºCcal/g⋅ºC.
  • 3 cvcv at constant volume and at 20.0ºC20.0ºC, except as noted, and at 1.00 atm average pressure. Values in parentheses are cpcp at a constant pressure of 1.00 atm.
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