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College Physics for AP® Courses

Connection for AP® Courses

College Physics for AP® CoursesConnection for AP® Courses

Photograph shows a group of firefighters in uniform using a hose to put out a fire that is consuming two cars.
Figure 12.1 Many fluids are flowing in this scene. Water from the hose and smoke from the fire are visible flows. Less visible are the flow of air and the flow of fluids on the ground and within the people fighting the fire. Explore all types of flow, such as visible, implied, turbulent, laminar, and so on, present in this scene. Make a list and discuss the relative energies involved in the various flows, including the level of confidence in your estimates. (credit: Andrew Magill, Flickr)

How do planes fly? How do we model blood flow? How do sprayers work for paints or aerosols? What is the purpose of a water tower? To answer these questions, we will examine fluid dynamics. The equations governing fluid dynamics are derived from the same equations that represent energy conservation. One of the most powerful equations in fluid dynamics is Bernoulli's equation, which governs the relationship between fluid pressure, kinetic energy, and potential energy (Essential Knowledge 5.B.10). We will see how Bernoulli's equation explains the pressure difference that provides lift for airplanes and provides the means for fluids (like water or paint or perfume) to move in useful ways.

The content in this chapter supports:

Big Idea 5 Changes that occur as a result of interactions are constrained by conservation laws.

Enduring Understanding 5.B The energy of a system is conserved.

Essential Knowledge 5.B.10 Bernoulli's equation describes the conservation of energy in a fluid flow.

Enduring Understanding 5.F Classically, the mass of a system is conserved.

Essential Knowledge 5.F.1 The continuity equation describes conservation of mass flow rate in fluids.

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