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College Physics for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

College Physics for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
    11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
    9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  7. 6 Gravitation and Uniform Circular Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Connection for AP® courses
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    5. 18.4 Coulomb’s Law
    6. 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    7. 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    8. 18.7 Electric Forces in Biology
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  22. 21 Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
    18. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
    10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-Temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index

10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia

1.

A piece of wood can be carved by spinning it on a motorized lathe and holding a sharp chisel to the edge of the wood as it spins. How does the angular velocity of a piece of wood with a radius of 0.2 m spinning on a lathe change when a chisel is held to the wood's edge with a force of 50 N?

  1. It increases by 0.1 N•m multiplied by the moment of inertia of the wood.
  2. It decreases by 0.1 N•m divided by the moment of inertia of the wood-and-lathe system.
  3. It decreases by 0.1 N•m multiplied by the moment of inertia of the wood.
  4. It decreases by 0.1 m/s2.
2.

A Ferris wheel is loaded with people in the chairs at the following positions: 4 o'clock, 1 o'clock, 9 o'clock, and 6 o'clock. As the wheel begins to turn, what forces are acting on the system? How will each force affect the angular velocity and angular momentum?

3.

A lever is placed on a fulcrum. A rock is placed on the left end of the lever and a downward (clockwise) force is applied to the right end of the lever. What measurements would be most effective to help you determine the angular momentum of the system? (Assume the lever itself has negligible mass.)

  1. the angular velocity and mass of the rock
  2. the angular velocity and mass of the rock, and the radius of the lever
  3. the velocity of the force, the radius of the lever, and the mass of the rock
  4. the mass of the rock, the length of the lever on both sides of the fulcrum, and the force applied on the right side of the lever
4.

You can use the following setup to determine angular acceleration and angular momentum: A lever is placed on a fulcrum. A rock is placed on the left end of the lever and a known downward (clockwise) force is applied to the right end of the lever. What calculations would you perform? How would you account for gravity in your calculations?

5.

Consider two sizes of disk, both of mass M. One size of disk has radius R; the other has radius 2R. System A consists of two of the larger disks rigidly connected to each other with a common axis of rotation. System B consists of one of the larger disks and a number of the smaller disks rigidly connected with a common axis of rotation. If the moment of inertia for system A equals the moment of inertia for system B, how many of the smaller disks are in system B?

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
6.

You are given a thin rod of length 1.0 m and mass 2.0 kg, a small lead weight of 0.50 kg, and a not-so-small lead weight of 1.0 kg. The rod has three holes, one in each end and one through the middle, which may either hold a pivot point or one of the small lead weights. How do you arrange these objects so that the resulting system has the maximum possible moment of inertia? What is that moment of inertia? do you arrange these objects so that the resulting system has the maximum possible moment of inertia? What is that moment of inertia?

10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited

7.

Gear A, which turns clockwise, meshes with gear B, which turns counterclockwise. When more force is applied through gear A, torque is created. How does the angular velocity of gear B change as a result?

  1. It increases in magnitude.
  2. It decreases in magnitude.
  3. It changes direction.
  4. It stays the same.
8.

Which will cause a greater increase in the angular velocity of a disk: doubling the torque applied or halving the radius at which the torque is applied? Explain.

9.

Which measure would not be useful to help you determine the change in angular velocity when the torque on a fishing reel is increased?

  1. the radius of the reel
  2. the amount of line that unspools
  3. the angular momentum of the fishing line
  4. the time it takes the line to unspool
10.

What data could you collect to study the change in angular velocity when two people push a merry-go-round instead of one, providing twice as much torque? How would you use the data you collect?

10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation

11.

Which rotational system would be best to use as a model to measure how angular momentum changes when forces on the system are changed?

  1. a fishing reel
  2. a planet and its moon
  3. a figure skater spinning
  4. a person's lower leg
12.

You are collecting data to study changes in the angular momentum of a bicycle wheel when a force is applied to it. Which of the following measurements would be least helpful to you?

  1. the time for which the force is applied
  2. the radius at which the force is applied
  3. the angular velocity of the wheel when the force is applied
  4. the direction of the force
13.

Which torque applied to a disk with radius 7.0 cm for 3.5 s will produce an angular momentum of 25 N•m•s?

  1. 7.1 N•m
  2. 357.1 N•m
  3. 3.6 N•m
  4. 612.5 N•m
14.

Which of the following would be the best way to produce measurable amounts of torque on a system to test the relationship between the angular momentum of the system, the average torque applied to the system, and the time for which the torque is applied?

  1. having different numbers of people push on a merry-go-round
  2. placing known masses on one end of a seesaw
  3. touching the outer edge of a bicycle wheel to a treadmill that is moving at different speeds
  4. hanging known masses from a string that is wound around a spool suspended horizontally on an axle
15.
Figure 10.42 A curved arrow lies at the side of a gray disk. There is a point at the center of the disk, and around the point there is a dashed circle. There is a point labeled “Child” on the dashed circle. Below the disc is a label saying “Top View”.

The diagram above shows a top view of a child of mass M on a circular platform of mass 2M that is rotating counterclockwise. Assume the platform rotates without friction. Which of the following describes an action by the child that will increase the angular speed of the platform-child system and why?

  1. The child moves toward the center of the platform, increasing the total angular momentum of the system.
  2. The child moves toward the center of the platform, decreasing the rotational inertia of the system.
  3. The child moves away from the center of the platform, increasing the total angular momentum of the system.
  4. The child moves away from the center of the platform, decreasing the rotational inertia of the system.
16.
Figure 10.43 A point labeled “Moon” lies on a dashed ellipse. Two other points, labeled “A” and “B”, lie at opposite ends of the ellipse. A point labeled “Planet” lies inside the ellipse.

A moon is in an elliptical orbit about a planet as shown above. At point A the moon has speed uA and is at distance RA from the planet. At point B the moon has speed uB. Has the moon's angular momentum changed? Explain your answer.

17.

A hamster sits 0.10 m from the center of a lazy Susan of negligible mass. The wheel spins with a frequency of 1.0 rev/s. How will the frequency of the lazy Susan change if the hamster walks to 0.30 m from the center of rotation? Assume zero friction and no external torque.

  1. It will speed up to 2.0 rev/s.
  2. It will speed up to 9.0 rev/s.
  3. It will slow to 0.11 rev/s.
  4. It will slow to 0.22 rev/s.
18.

Earth has a mass of 6.0 × 1024 kg, a radius of 6.4 × 106 m, and a rotational frequency of 1.2 × 10–5 rev/s. How would the planet's rotational frequency change if a layer of Earth with mass 1.0 × 1023 kg broke off of the Earth, decreasing Earth's radius by 0.2 × 106 m? Assume no friction.

19.

Consider system A, consisting of two disks of radius R, with both rotating clockwise. Now consider system B, consisting of one disk of radius R rotating counterclockwise and another disk of radius 2R rotating clockwise. All of the disks have the same mass, and all have the same magnitude of angular velocity.

Which system has the greatest angular momentum?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. They're equal.
  4. Not enough information
20.

Assume that a baseball bat being swung at 3π rad/s by a batting machine is equivalent to a 1.1 m thin rod with a mass of 1.0 kg. How fast would a 0.15 kg baseball that squarely hits the very tip of the bat have to be going for the net angular momentum of the bat-ball system to be zero?

10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions

21.

A box with a mass of 2.0 kg rests on one end of a seesaw. The seesaw is 6.0 m long, and we can assume it has negligible mass. Approximately what angular momentum will the box have if someone with a mass of 65 kg sits on the other end of the seesaw quickly, with a velocity of 1.2 m/s?

  1. 702 kg•m2/s
  2. 39 kg•m2/s
  3. 18 kg•m2/s
  4. 1.2 kg•m2/s
22.

A spinner in a board game can be thought of as a thin rod that spins about an axis at its center. The spinner in a certain game is 12 cm long and has a mass of 10 g. How will its angular velocity change when it is flicked at one end with a force equivalent to 15 g travelling at 5.0 m/s if all the energy of the collision is transferred to the spinner? (You can use the table in Figure 10.12 to estimate the rotational inertia of the spinner.)

23.

A cyclist pedals to exert a torque on the rear wheel of the bicycle. When the cyclist changes to a higher gear, the torque increases. Which of the following would be the most effective strategy to help you determine the change in angular momentum of the bicycle wheel?

  1. multiplying the ratio between the two torques by the mass of the bicycle and rider
  2. adding the two torques together, and multiplying by the time for which both torques are applied
  3. multiplying the difference in the two torques by the time for which the new torque is applied
  4. multiplying both torques by the mass of the bicycle and rider
24.

An electric screwdriver has two speeds, each of which exerts a different torque on a screw. Describe what calculations you could use to help you compare the angular momentum of a screw at each speed. What measurements would you need to make in order to calculate this?

25.

Why is it important to consider the shape of an object when determining the object's angular momentum?

  1. The shape determines the location of the center of mass. The location of the center of mass in turn determines the angular velocity of the object.
  2. The shape helps you determine the location of the object's outer edge, where rotational velocity will be greatest.
  3. The shape helps you determine the location of the center of rotation.
  4. The shape determines the location of the center of mass. The location of the center of mass contributes to the object's rotational inertia, which contributes to its angular momentum.
26.

How could you collect and analyze data to test the difference between the torques provided by two speeds on a tabletop fan?

27.

Describe a rotational system you could use to demonstrate the effect on the system's angular momentum of applying different amounts of external torque.

28.

How could you use simple equipment such as balls and string to study the changes in angular momentum of a system when it interacts with another system?

10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

29.

A globe (model of the Earth) is a hollow sphere with a radius of 16 cm. By wrapping a cord around the equator of a globe and pulling on it, a person exerts a torque on the globe of 120 N • m for 1.2 s. What angular momentum does the globe have after 1.2 s?

30.

How could you use a fishing reel to test the relationship between the torque applied to a system, the time for which the torque was applied, and the resulting angular momentum of the system? How would you measure angular momentum?

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