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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
    11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
    9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  7. 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Connection for AP® courses
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    5. 18.4 Coulomb’s Law
    6. 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    7. 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    8. 18.7 Electric Forces in Biology
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  22. 21 Circuits and DC Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
    18. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
    10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  30. 29 Quantum Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 32.1 Diagnostics and Medical Imaging
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index
Atomic Number, Z Name Atomic Mass Number, A Symbol Atomic Mass (u) Percent Abundance or Decay Mode Half-life, t1/2
0 neutron 1 n n 1.008 665 β β 10.37 min
1 Hydrogen 1 1 H 1 H 1.007 825 99.985%
Deuterium 2 2 H or D 2 H or D 2.014 102 0.015%
Tritium 3 3 H or T 3 H or T 3.016 050 β β 12.33 y
2 Helium 3 3 He 3 He 3.016 030 1 . 38 × 10 4 % 1 . 38 × 10 4 %
4 4 He 4 He 4.002 603 ≈100% ≈100%
3 Lithium 6 6 Li 6 Li 6.015 121 7.5%
7 7 Li 7 Li 7.016 003 92.5%
4 Beryllium 7 7 Be 7 Be 7.016 928 EC 53.29 d
9 9 Be 9 Be 9.012 182 100%
5 Boron 10 10 B 10 B 10.012 937 19.9%
11 11 B 11 B 11.009 305 80.1%
6 Carbon 11 11 C 11 C 11.011 432 EC, β + β +
12 12 C 12 C 12.000 000 98.90%
13 13 C 13 C 13.003 355 1.10%
14 14 C 14 C 14.003 241 β β 5730 y
7 Nitrogen 13 13 N 13 N 13.005 738 β + β + 9.96 min
14 14 N 14 N 14.003 074 99.63%
15 15 N 15 N 15.000 108 0.37%
8 Oxygen 15 15 O 15 O 15.003 065 EC, β + β + 122 s
16 16 O 16 O 15.994 915 99.76%
18 18 O 18 O 17.999 160 0.200%
9 Fluorine 18 18 F 18 F 18.000 937 EC, β + β + 1.83 h
19 19 F 19 F 18.998 403 100%
10 Neon 20 20 Ne 20 Ne 19.992 435 90.51%
22 22 Ne 22 Ne 21.991 383 9.22%
11 Sodium 22 22 Na 22 Na 21.994 434 β + β + 2.602 y
23 23 Na 23 Na 22.989 767 100%
24 24 Na 24 Na 23.990 961 β β 14.96 h
12 Magnesium 24 24 Mg 24 Mg 23.985 042 78.99%
13 Aluminum 27 27 Al 27 Al 26.981 539 100%
14 Silicon 28 28 Si 28 Si 27.976 927 92.23% 2.62h
31 31 Si 31 Si 30.975 362 β β
15 Phosphorus 31 31 P 31 P 30.973 762 100%
32 32 P 32 P 31.973 907 β β 14.28 d
16 Sulfur 32 32 S 32 S 31.972 070 95.02%
35 35 S 35 S 34.969 031 β β 87.4 d
17 Chlorine 35 35 Cl 35 Cl 34.968 852 75.77%
37 37 Cl 37 Cl 36.965 903 24.23%
18 Argon 40 40 Ar 40 Ar 39.962 384 99.60%
19 Potassium 39 39 K 39 K 38.963 707 93.26%
40 40 K 40 K 39.963 999 0.0117%, EC, ββ 1 . 28 × 10 9 y 1 . 28 × 10 9 y
20 Calcium 40 40 Ca 40 Ca 39.962 591 96.94%
21 Scandium 45 45 Sc 45 Sc 44.955 910 100%
22 Titanium 48 48 Ti 48 Ti 47.947 947 73.8%
23 Vanadium 51 51 V 51 V 50.943 962 99.75%
24 Chromium 52 52 Cr 52 Cr 51.940 509 83.79%
25 Manganese 55 55 Mn 55 Mn 54.938 047 100%
26 Iron 56 56 Fe 56 Fe 55.934 939 91.72%
27 Cobalt 59 59 Co 59 Co 58.933 198 100%
60 60 Co 60 Co 59.933 819 β β 5.271 y
28 Nickel 58 58 Ni 58 Ni 57.935 346 68.27%
60 60 Ni 60 Ni 59.930 788 26.10%
29 Copper 63 63 Cu 63 Cu 62.939 598 69.17%
65 65 Cu 65 Cu 64.927 793 30.83%
30 Zinc 64 64 Zn 64 Zn 63.929 145 48.6%
66 66 Zn 66 Zn 65.926 034 27.9%
31 Gallium 69 69 Ga 69 Ga 68.925 580 60.1%
32 Germanium 72 72 Ge 72 Ge 71.922 079 27.4%
74 74 Ge 74 Ge 73.921 177 36.5%
33 Arsenic 75 75 As 75 As 74.921 594 100%
34 Selenium 80 80 Se 80 Se 79.916 520 49.7%
35 Bromine 79 79 Br 79 Br 78.918 336 50.69%
36 Krypton 84 84 Kr 84 Kr 83.911 507 57.0%
37 Rubidium 85 85 Rb 85 Rb 84.911 794 72.17%
38 Strontium 86 86 Sr 86 Sr 85.909 267 9.86%
88 88 Sr 88 Sr 87.905 619 82.58%
90 90 Sr 90 Sr 89.907 738 ββ ­ 28.8 y
39 Yttrium 89 89 Y 89 Y 88.905 849 100%
90 90 Y 90 Y 89.907 152 ββ ­ 64.1 h
40 Zirconium 90 90 Zr 90 Zr 89.904 703 51.45%
41 Niobium 93 93 Nb 93 Nb 92.906 377 100%
42 Molybdenum 98 98 Mo 98 Mo 97.905 406 24.13%
43 Technetium 98 98 Tc 98 Tc 97.907 215 ββ ­ 4 . 2 × 10 6 y 4 . 2 × 10 6 y
44 Ruthenium 102 102 Ru 102 Ru 101.904 348 31.6%
45 Rhodium 103 103 Rh 103 Rh 102.905 500 100%
46 Palladium 106 106 Pd 106 Pd 105.903 478 27.33%
47 Silver 107 107 Ag 107 Ag 106.905 092 51.84%
109 109 Ag 109 Ag 108.904 757 48.16%
48 Cadmium 114 114 Cd 114 Cd 113.903 357 28.73%
49 Indium 115 115 In 115 In 114.903 880 95.7%, ββ ­ 4 . 4 × 10 14 y 4 . 4 × 10 14 y
50 Tin 120 120 Sn 120 Sn 119.902 200 32.59%
51 Antimony 121 121 Sb 121 Sb 120.903 821 57.3%
52 Tellurium 130 130 Te 130 Te 129.906 229 33.8%, ββ ­ 2 . 5 × 10 21 y 2 . 5 × 10 21 y
53 Iodine 127 127 I 127 I 126.904 473 100%
131 131 I 131 I 130.906 114 ββ ­ 8.040 d
54 Xenon 132 132 Xe 132 Xe 131.904 144 26.9%
136 136 Xe 136 Xe 135.907 214 8.9%
55 Cesium 133 133 Cs 133 Cs 132.905 429 100%
134 134 Cs 134 Cs 133.906 696 EC, ββ ­ 2.06 y
56 Barium 137 137 Ba 137 Ba 136.905 812 11.23%
138 138 Ba 138 Ba 137.905 232 71.70%
57 Lanthanum 139 139 La 139 La 138.906 346 99.91%
58 Cerium 140 140 Ce 140 Ce 139.905 433 88.48%
59 Praseodymium 141 141 Pr 141 Pr 140.907 647 100%
60 Neodymium 142 142 Nd 142 Nd 141.907 719 27.13%
61 Promethium 145 145 Pm 145 Pm 144.912 743 EC, αα 17.7 y
62 Samarium 152 152 Sm 152 Sm 151.919 729 26.7%
63 Europium 153 153 Eu 153 Eu 152.921 225 52.2%
64 Gadolinium 158 158 Gd 158 Gd 157.924 099 24.84%
65 Terbium 159 159 Tb 159 Tb 158.925 342 100%
66 Dysprosium 164 164 Dy 164 Dy 163.929 171 28.2%
67 Holmium 165 165 Ho 165 Ho 164.930 319 100%
68 Erbium 166 166 Er 166 Er 165.930 290 33.6%
69 Thulium 169 169 Tm 169 Tm 168.934 212 100%
70 Ytterbium 174 174 Yb 174 Yb 173.938 859 31.8%
71 Lutecium 175 175 Lu 175 Lu 174.940 770 97.41%
72 Hafnium 180 180 Hf 180 Hf 179.946 545 35.10%
73 Tantalum 181 181 Ta 181 Ta 180.947 992 99.98%
74 Tungsten 184 184 W 184 W 183.950 928 30.67%
75 Rhenium 187 187 Re 187 Re 186.955 744 62.6%, ββ 4 . 6 × 10 10 y 4 . 6 × 10 10 y
76 Osmium 191 191 Os 191 Os 190.960 920 ββ ­ 15.4 d
192 192 Os 192 Os 191.961 467 41.0%
77 Iridium 191 191 Ir 191 Ir 190.960 584 37.3%
193 193 Ir 193 Ir 192.962 917 62.7%
78 Platinum 195 195 Pt 195 Pt 194.964 766 33.8%
79 Gold 197 197 Au 197 Au 196.966 543 100%
198 198 Au 198 Au 197.968 217 ββ ­ 2.696 d
80 Mercury 199 199 Hg 199 Hg 198.968 253 16.87%
202 202 Hg 202 Hg 201.970 617 29.86%
81 Thallium 205 205 Tl 205 Tl 204.974 401 70.48%
82 Lead 206 206 Pb 206 Pb 205.974 440 24.1%
207 207 Pb 207 Pb 206.975 872 22.1%
208 208 Pb 208 Pb 207.976 627 52.4%
210 210 Pb 210 Pb 209.984 163 α,βα,β ­ 22.3 y
211 211 Pb 211 Pb 210.988 735 ββ ­ 36.1 min
212 212 Pb 212 Pb 211.991 871 ββ ­ 10.64 h
83 Bismuth 209 209 Bi 209 Bi 208.980 374 100%
211 211 Bi 211 Bi 210.987 255 α , β α , β 2.14 min
84 Polonium 210 210 Po 210 Po 209.982 848 α α 138.38 d
85 Astatine 218 218 At 218 At 218.008 684 α , β α , β 1.6 s
86 Radon 222 222 Rn 222 Rn 222.017 570 α α 3.82 d
87 Francium 223 223 Fr 223 Fr 223.019 733 α , β α , β 21.8 min
88 Radium 226 226 Ra 226 Ra 226.025 402 α α 1 . 60 × 10 3 y 1 . 60 × 10 3 y
89 Actinium 227 227 Ac 227 Ac 227.027 750 α , β α , β 21.8 y
90 Thorium 228 228 Th 228 Th 228.028 715 α α 1.91 y
232 232 Th 232 Th 232.038 054 100%, αα 1 . 41 × 10 10 y 1 . 41 × 10 10 y
91 Protactinium 231 231 Pa 231 Pa 231.035 880 α α 3 . 28 × 10 4 y 3 . 28 × 10 4 y
92 Uranium 233 233 U 233 U 233.039 628 α α 1 . 59 × 10 3 y 1 . 59 × 10 3 y
235 235 U 235 U 235.043 924 0.720%, αα 7 . 04 × 10 8 y 7 . 04 × 10 8 y
236 236 U 236 U 236.045 562 α α 2 . 34 × 10 7 y 2 . 34 × 10 7 y
238 238 U 238 U 238.050 784 99.2745%, αα 4 . 47 × 10 9 y 4 . 47 × 10 9 y
239 239 U 239 U 239.054 289 ββ ­ 23.5 min
93 Neptunium 239 239 Np 239 Np 239.052 933 ββ ­ 2.355 d
94 Plutonium 239 239 Pu 239 Pu 239.052 157 α α 2 . 41 × 10 4 y 2 . 41 × 10 4 y
95 Americium 243 243 Am 243 Am 243.061 375 α,α, fission 7 . 37 × 10 3 y 7 . 37 × 10 3 y
96 Curium 245 245 Cm 245 Cm 245.065 483 α α 8 . 50 × 10 3 y 8 . 50 × 10 3 y
97 Berkelium 247 247 Bk 247 Bk 247.070 300 α α 1 . 38 × 10 3 y 1 . 38 × 10 3 y
98 Californium 249 249 Cf 249 Cf 249.074 844 α α 351 y
99 Einsteinium 254 254 Es 254 Es 254.088 019 α,βα,β ­ 276 d
100 Fermium 253 253 Fm 253 Fm 253.085 173 EC, αα 3.00 d
101 Mendelevium 255 255 Md 255 Md 255.091 081 EC, αα 27 min
102 Nobelium 255 255 No 255 No 255.093 260 EC, αα 3.1 min
103 Lawrencium 257 257 Lr 257 Lr 257.099 480 EC, αα 0.646 s
104 Rutherfordium 261 261 Rf 261 Rf 261.108 690 α α 1.08 min
105 Dubnium 262 262 Db 262 Db 262.113 760 α,α, fission 34 s
106 Seaborgium 263 263 Sg 263 Sg 263.11 86 α,α, fission 0.8 s
107 Bohrium 262 262 Bh 262 Bh 262.123 1 α α 0.102 s
108 Hassium 264 264 Hs 264 Hs 264.128 5 α α 0.08 ms
109 Meitnerium 266 266 Mt 266 Mt 266.137 8 α α 3.4 ms
Table A1 Atomic Masses
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