College Physics for AP® Courses 2e

# Glossary

deformation
change in shape due to the application of force
drag force
$FDFD$, found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object; mathematically
$F D ∝ v 2 F D ∝ v 2$
$FD=12Cρ Av2,FD=12Cρ Av2,$
where $CC$ is the drag coefficient, $AA$ is the area of the object facing the fluid, and $ρρ$ is the density of the fluid
friction
a force that opposes relative motion or attempts at motion between systems in contact
Hooke’s law
proportional relationship between the force $FF$ on a material and the deformation $ΔLΔL$ it causes, $F=kΔLF=kΔL$
kinetic friction
a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and moving relative to one another
magnitude of kinetic friction
$fk=μkNfk=μkN$, where $μkμk$ is the coefficient of kinetic friction
magnitude of static friction
$fs≤μsNfs≤μsN$, where $μsμs$ is the coefficient of static friction and $NN$ is the magnitude of the normal force
shear deformation
deformation perpendicular to the original length of an object
static friction
a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and are not moving relative to one another
Stokes’ law
$Fs=6πrηvFs=6πrηv$, where $r r$ is the radius of the object, $η η$ is the viscosity of the fluid, and $v v$ is the object’s velocity
strain
ratio of change in length to original length
stress
ratio of force to area
tensile strength
the breaking stress that will cause permanent deformation or fraction of a material
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