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College Physics 2e

D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

College Physics 2eD | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
  7. 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    1. Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Introduction to Statics and Torque
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Introduction to Fluid Statics
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Introduction to Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction to Thermodynamics
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Introduction to the Physics of Hearing
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    6. 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    7. 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology
    8. 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  22. 21 Circuits and DC Instruments
    1. Introduction to Circuits and DC Instruments
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Introduction to Magnetism
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Introduction to Geometric Optics
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Introduction to Vision and Optical Instruments
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Introduction to Wave Optics
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction to Special Relativity
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  30. 29 Quantum Physics
    1. Introduction to Quantum Physics
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Introduction to Atomic Physics
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Applications of Nuclear Physics
    2. 32.1 Diagnostics and Medical Imaging
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction to Particle Physics
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Introduction to Frontiers of Physics
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index

In this glossary, key symbols and notation are briefly defined.

Symbol Definition
any symbol ¯ any symbol ¯ average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯v¯ is average velocity)
° C ° C Celsius degree
° F ° F Fahrenheit degree
// // parallel
perpendicular
proportional to
± ± plus or minus
0 0 zero as a subscript denotes an initial value
α α alpha rays
α α angular acceleration
α α temperature coefficient(s) of resistivity
β β beta rays
β β sound level
β β volume coefficient of expansion
β β electron emitted in nuclear beta decay
β + β + positron decay
γ γ gamma rays
γ γ surface tension
γ = 1 / 1 v 2 / c 2 γ = 1 / 1 v 2 / c 2 a constant used in relativity
Δ Δ change in whatever quantity follows
δ δ uncertainty in whatever quantity follows
ΔE ΔE change in energy between the initial and final orbits of an electron in an atom
ΔE ΔE uncertainty in energy
Δm Δm difference in mass between initial and final products
ΔN ΔN number of decays that occur
Δp Δp change in momentum
Δp Δp uncertainty in momentum
Δ PE g Δ PE g change in gravitational potential energy
Δθ Δθ rotation angle
Δs Δs distance traveled along a circular path
Δt Δt uncertainty in time
Δt 0 Δt 0 proper time as measured by an observer at rest relative to the process
ΔV ΔV potential difference
Δx Δx uncertainty in position
ε 0 ε 0 permittivity of free space
η η viscosity
θ θ angle between the force vector and the displacement vector
θ θ angle between two lines
θ θ contact angle
θ θ direction of the resultant
θ b θ b Brewster's angle
θ c θ c critical angle
κ κ dielectric constant
λ λ decay constant of a nuclide
λ λ wavelength
λ n λ n wavelength in a medium
μ 0 μ 0 permeability of free space
μ k μ k coefficient of kinetic friction
μ s μ s coefficient of static friction
v e v e electron neutrino
π + π + positive pion
π π negative pion
π 0 π 0 neutral pion
ρ ρ density
ρ c ρ c critical density, the density needed to just halt universal expansion
ρ fl ρ fl fluid density
ρ ¯ obj ρ ¯ obj average density of an object
ρ / ρ w ρ / ρ w specific gravity
τ τ characteristic time constant for a resistance and inductance (RL)(RL) or resistance and capacitance (RC)(RC) circuit
τ τ characteristic time for a resistor and capacitor (RC)(RC) circuit
τ τ torque
Υ Υ upsilon meson
Φ Φ magnetic flux
ϕ ϕ phase angle
Ω Ω ohm (unit)
ω ω angular velocity
A A ampere (current unit)
A A area
A A cross-sectional area
A A total number of nucleons
a a acceleration
a B a B Bohr radius
a c a c centripetal acceleration
a t a t tangential acceleration
AC AC alternating current
AM AM amplitude modulation
atm atm atmosphere
B B baryon number
B B blue quark color
B ¯ B ¯ antiblue (yellow) antiquark color
b b quark flavor bottom or beauty
B B bulk modulus
B B magnetic field strength
B int B int electron’s intrinsic magnetic field
B orb B orb orbital magnetic field
BE BE binding energy of a nucleus—it is the energy required to completely disassemble it into separate protons and neutrons
BE / A BE / A binding energy per nucleon
Bq Bq becquerel—one decay per second
C C capacitance (amount of charge stored per volt)
C C coulomb (a fundamental SI unit of charge)
C p C p total capacitance in parallel
C s C s total capacitance in series
CG CG center of gravity
CM CM center of mass
c c quark flavor charm
c c specific heat
c c speed of light
Cal Cal kilocalorie
cal cal calorie
COP hp COP hp heat pump’s coefficient of performance
COP ref COP ref coefficient of performance for refrigerators and air conditioners
cos θ cos θ cosine
cot θ cot θ cotangent
csc θ csc θ cosecant
D D diffusion constant
d d displacement
d d quark flavor down
dB dB decibel
d i d i distance of an image from the center of a lens
d o d o distance of an object from the center of a lens
DC DC direct current
E E electric field strength
ε ε emf (voltage) or Hall electromotive force
emf emf electromotive force
E E energy of a single photon
E E nuclear reaction energy
E E relativistic total energy
E E total energy
E 0 E 0 ground state energy for hydrogen
E 0 E 0 rest energy
EC EC electron capture
E cap E cap energy stored in a capacitor
Eff Eff efficiency—the useful work output divided by the energy input
Eff C Eff C Carnot efficiency
E in E in energy consumed (food digested in humans)
E ind E ind energy stored in an inductor
E out E out energy output
e e emissivity of an object
e + e + antielectron or positron
eV eV electron volt
F F farad (unit of capacitance, a coulomb per volt)
F F focal point of a lens
F F force
F F magnitude of a force
F F restoring force
F B F B buoyant force
F c F c centripetal force
F i F i force input
F net F net net force
F o F o force output
FM FM frequency modulation
f f focal length
f f frequency
f 0 f 0 resonant frequency of a resistance, inductance, and capacitance (RLC)(RLC) series circuit
f 0 f 0 threshold frequency for a particular material (photoelectric effect)
f 1 f 1 fundamental
f 2 f 2 first overtone
f 3 f 3 second overtone
f B f B beat frequency
f k f k magnitude of kinetic friction
f s f s magnitude of static friction
G G gravitational constant
G G green quark color
G ¯ G ¯ antigreen (magenta) antiquark color
g g acceleration due to gravity
g g gluons (carrier particles for strong nuclear force)
h h change in vertical position
h h height above some reference point
h h maximum height of a projectile
h h Planck's constant
hf hf photon energy
h i h i height of the image
h o h o height of the object
I I electric current
I I intensity
I I intensity of a transmitted wave
I I moment of inertia (also called rotational inertia)
I 0 I 0 intensity of a polarized wave before passing through a filter
I ave I ave average intensity for a continuous sinusoidal electromagnetic wave
I rms I rms average current
J J joule
J / Ψ J / Ψ Joules/psi meson
K K kelvin
k k Boltzmann constant
k k force constant of a spring
K α K α x rays created when an electron falls into an n=1n=1 shell vacancy from the n=3n=3 shell
K β K β x rays created when an electron falls into an n=2n=2 shell vacancy from the n=3n=3 shell
kcal kcal kilocalorie
KE KE translational kinetic energy
KE + PE KE + PE mechanical energy
KE e KE e kinetic energy of an ejected electron
KE rel KE rel relativistic kinetic energy
KE rot KE rot rotational kinetic energy
KE ¯ KE ¯ thermal energy
kg kg kilogram (a fundamental SI unit of mass)
L L angular momentum
L L liter
L L magnitude of angular momentum
L L self-inductance
angular momentum quantum number
L α L α x rays created when an electron falls into an n=2 n=2 shell
L e L e electron total family number
L μ L μ muon family total number
L τ L τ tau family total number
L f L f heat of fusion
L f and L v L f and L v latent heat coefficients
L orb L orb orbital angular momentum
L s L s heat of sublimation
L v L v heat of vaporization
L z L z z - component of the angular momentum
M M angular magnification
M M mutual inductance
m m indicates metastable state
m m magnification
m m mass
m m mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
m m meter (a fundamental SI unit of length)
m m order of interference
m m overall magnification (product of the individual magnifications)
m A X m A X atomic mass of a nuclide
MA MA mechanical advantage
m e m e magnification of the eyepiece
m e m e mass of the electron
m m angular momentum projection quantum number
m n m n mass of a neutron
m o m o magnification of the objective lens
mol mol mole
m p m p mass of a proton
m s m s spin projection quantum number
N N magnitude of the normal force
N N newton
N N normal force
N N number of neutrons
n n index of refraction
n n number of free charges per unit volume
N A N A Avogadro's number
N r N r Reynolds number
N m N m newton-meter (work-energy unit)
N m N m newtons times meters (SI unit of torque)
OE OE other energy
P P power
P P power of a lens
P P pressure
p p momentum
p p momentum magnitude
p p relativistic momentum
p tot p tot total momentum
p tot ' p tot ' total momentum some time later
P abs P abs absolute pressure
P atm P atm atmospheric pressure
P atm P atm standard atmospheric pressure
PE PE potential energy
PE el PE el elastic potential energy
PE elec PE elec electric potential energy
PE s PE s potential energy of a spring
P g P g gauge pressure
P in P in power consumption or input
P out P out useful power output going into useful work or a desired, form of energy
Q Q latent heat
Q Q net heat transferred into a system
Q Q flow rate—volume per unit time flowing past a point
+ Q + Q positive charge
Q Q negative charge
q q electron charge
q p q p charge of a proton
q q test charge
QF QF quality factor
R R activity, the rate of decay
R R radius of curvature of a spherical mirror
R R red quark color
R ¯ R ¯ antired (cyan) quark color
R R resistance
R R resultant or total displacement
R R Rydberg constant
R R universal gas constant
r r distance from pivot point to the point where a force is applied
r r internal resistance
r r perpendicular lever arm
r r radius of a nucleus
r r radius of curvature
r r resistivity
r or rad r or rad radiation dose unit
rem rem roentgen equivalent man
rad rad radian
RBE RBE relative biological effectiveness
RC RC resistor and capacitor circuit
rms rms root mean square
r n r n radius of the nth H-atom orbit
R p R p total resistance of a parallel connection
R s R s total resistance of a series connection
R s R s Schwarzschild radius
S S entropy
S S intrinsic spin (intrinsic angular momentum)
S S magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
S S shear modulus
S S strangeness quantum number
s s quark flavor strange
s s second (fundamental SI unit of time)
s s spin quantum number
s s total displacement
sec θ sec θ secant
sin θ sin θ sine
s z s z z-component of spin angular momentum
T T period—time to complete one oscillation
T T temperature
T c T c critical temperature—temperature below which a material becomes a superconductor
T T tension
T T tesla (magnetic field strength B)
t t quark flavor top or truth
t t time
t 1 / 2 t 1 / 2 half-life—the time in which half of the original nuclei decay
tan θ tan θ tangent
U U internal energy
u u quark flavor up
u u unified atomic mass unit
u u velocity of an object relative to an observer
u ' u ' velocity relative to another observer
V V electric potential
V V terminal voltage
V V volt (unit)
V V volume
v v relative velocity between two observers
v v speed of light in a material
v v velocity
v ¯ v ¯ average fluid velocity
V B V A V B V A change in potential
v d v d drift velocity
V p V p transformer input voltage
V rms V rms rms voltage
V s V s transformer output voltage
v tot v tot total velocity
v w v w propagation speed of sound or other wave
v w v w wave velocity
W W work
W W net work done by a system
W W watt
w w weight
w fl w fl weight of the fluid displaced by an object
W c W c total work done by all conservative forces
W nc W nc total work done by all nonconservative forces
W out W out useful work output
X X amplitude
X X symbol for an element
A Z X N A Z X N notation for a particular nuclide
x x deformation or displacement from equilibrium
x x displacement of a spring from its undeformed position
x x horizontal axis
X C X C capacitive reactance
X L X L inductive reactance
x rms x rms root mean square diffusion distance
y y vertical axis
Y Y elastic modulus or Young's modulus
Z Z atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus)
Z Z impedance
Table D1
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