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change in shape due to the application of force
drag force
FDFD, found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object; mathematically
F D v 2 F D v 2
FD=12 Av2,FD=12 Av2,
where CC is the drag coefficient, AA is the area of the object facing the fluid, and ρρ is the density of the fluid
a force that opposes relative motion or attempts at motion between systems in contact
Hooke’s law
proportional relationship between the force FF on a material and the deformation ΔLΔL it causes, F=kΔLF=kΔL
kinetic friction
a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and moving relative to one another
magnitude of kinetic friction
fk=μkNfk=μkN, where μkμk is the coefficient of kinetic friction
magnitude of static friction
fsμsNfsμsN, where μsμs is the coefficient of static friction and NN is the magnitude of the normal force
shear deformation
deformation perpendicular to the original length of an object
static friction
a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and are not moving relative to one another
Stokes’ law
Fs=6πrηvFs=6πrηv, where r r is the radius of the object, η η is the viscosity of the fluid, and v v is the object’s velocity
ratio of change in length to original length
ratio of force to area
tensile strength
the breaking stress that will cause permanent deformation or fraction of a material
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