In this section, you will:
- Find the average rate of change of a function.
- Use a graph to determine where a function is increasing, decreasing, or constant.
- Use a graph to locate local maxima and local minima.
- Use a graph to locate the absolute maximum and absolute minimum.
Gasoline costs have experienced some wild fluctuations over the last several decades. Table 15 lists the average cost, in dollars, of a gallon of gasoline for the years 2005–2012. The cost of gasoline can be considered as a function of year.
If we were interested only in how the gasoline prices changed between 2005 and 2012, we could compute that the cost per gallon had increased from $2.31 to $3.68, an increase of $1.37. While this is interesting, it might be more useful to look at how much the price changed per year. In this section, we will investigate changes such as these.
Finding the Average Rate of Change of a Function
The price change per year is a rate of change because it describes how an output quantity changes relative to the change in the input quantity. We can see that the price of gasoline in Table 1 did not change by the same amount each year, so the rate of change was not constant. If we use only the beginning and ending data, we would be finding the average rate of change over the specified period of time. To find the average rate of change, we divide the change in the output value by the change in the input value.
The Greek letter (delta) signifies the change in a quantity; we read the ratio as “delta-y over delta-x” or “the change in divided by the change in ” Occasionally we write instead of which still represents the change in the function’s output value resulting from a change to its input value. It does not mean we are changing the function into some other function.
In our example, the gasoline price increased by $1.37 from 2005 to 2012. Over 7 years, the average rate of change was
On average, the price of gas increased by about 19.6¢ each year.
Other examples of rates of change include:
- A population of rats increasing by 40 rats per week
- A car traveling 68 miles per hour (distance traveled changes by 68 miles each hour as time passes)
- A car driving 27 miles per gallon (distance traveled changes by 27 miles for each gallon)
- The current through an electrical circuit increasing by 0.125 amperes for every volt of increased voltage
- The amount of money in a college account decreasing by $4,000 per quarter
A rate of change describes how an output quantity changes relative to the change in the input quantity. The units on a rate of change are “output units per input units.”
The average rate of change between two input values is the total change of the function values (output values) divided by the change in the input values.
Given the value of a function at different points, calculate the average rate of change of a function for the interval between two values and
- Calculate the difference
- Calculate the difference
- Find the ratio
Computing an Average Rate of Change
Using the data in Table 1, find the average rate of change of the price of gasoline between 2007 and 2009.
Note that a decrease is expressed by a negative change or “negative increase.” A rate of change is negative when the output decreases as the input increases or when the output increases as the input decreases.
Computing Average Rate of Change from a Graph
Given the function shown in Figure 1, find the average rate of change on the interval
Note that the order we choose is very important. If, for example, we use we will not get the correct answer. Decide which point will be 1 and which point will be 2, and keep the coordinates fixed as and
Computing Average Rate of Change from a Table
After picking up a friend who lives 10 miles away and leaving on a trip, Anna records her distance from home over time. The values are shown in Table 2. Find her average speed over the first 6 hours.
Because the speed is not constant, the average speed depends on the interval chosen. For the interval [2,3], the average speed is 63 miles per hour.
Computing Average Rate of Change for a Function Expressed as a Formula
Compute the average rate of change of on the interval
Find the average rate of change of on the interval
Finding the Average Rate of Change of a Force
The electrostatic force measured in newtons, between two charged particles can be related to the distance between the particles in centimeters, by the formula Find the average rate of change of force if the distance between the particles is increased from 2 cm to 6 cm.
Finding an Average Rate of Change as an Expression
Find the average rate of change of on the interval The answer will be an expression involving in simplest form.
Find the average rate of change of on the interval in simplest forms in terms
Using a Graph to Determine Where a Function is Increasing, Decreasing, or Constant
As part of exploring how functions change, we can identify intervals over which the function is changing in specific ways. We say that a function is increasing on an interval if the function values increase as the input values increase within that interval. Similarly, a function is decreasing on an interval if the function values decrease as the input values increase over that interval. The average rate of change of an increasing function is positive, and the average rate of change of a decreasing function is negative. Figure 3 shows examples of increasing and decreasing intervals on a function.
While some functions are increasing (or decreasing) over their entire domain, many others are not. A value of the input where a function changes from increasing to decreasing (as we go from left to right, that is, as the input variable increases) is the location of a local maximum. The function value at that point is the local maximum. If a function has more than one, we say it has local maxima. Similarly, a value of the input where a function changes from decreasing to increasing as the input variable increases is the location of a local minimum. The function value at that point is the local minimum. The plural form is “local minima.” Together, local maxima and minima are called local extrema, or local extreme values, of the function. (The singular form is “extremum.”) Often, the term local is replaced by the term relative. In this text, we will use the term local.
Clearly, a function is neither increasing nor decreasing on an interval where it is constant. A function is also neither increasing nor decreasing at extrema. Note that we have to speak of local extrema, because any given local extremum as defined here is not necessarily the highest maximum or lowest minimum in the function’s entire domain.
For the function whose graph is shown in Figure 4, the local maximum is 16, and it occurs at The local minimum is and it occurs at
To locate the local maxima and minima from a graph, we need to observe the graph to determine where the graph attains its highest and lowest points, respectively, within an open interval. Like the summit of a roller coaster, the graph of a function is higher at a local maximum than at nearby points on both sides. The graph will also be lower at a local minimum than at neighboring points. Figure 5 illustrates these ideas for a local maximum.
These observations lead us to a formal definition of local extrema.
A function is an increasing function on an open interval if for any two input values and in the given interval where
A function is a decreasing function on an open interval if for any two input values and in the given interval where
A function has a local maximum at if there exists an interval with such that, for any in the interval Likewise, has a local minimum at if there exists an interval with such that, for any in the interval
Finding Increasing and Decreasing Intervals on a Graph
Given the function in Figure 6, identify the intervals on which the function appears to be increasing.
Notice in this example that we used open intervals (intervals that do not include the endpoints), because the function is neither increasing nor decreasing at , , and . These points are the local extrema (two minima and a maximum).
Finding Local Extrema from a Graph
Graph the function Then use the graph to estimate the local extrema of the function and to determine the intervals on which the function is increasing.
Most graphing calculators and graphing utilities can estimate the location of maxima and minima. Figure 8 provides screen images from two different technologies, showing the estimate for the local maximum and minimum.
Based on these estimates, the function is increasing on the interval and Notice that, while we expect the extrema to be symmetric, the two different technologies agree only up to four decimals due to the differing approximation algorithms used by each. (The exact location of the extrema is at but determining this requires calculus.)
Graph the function to estimate the local extrema of the function. Use these to determine the intervals on which the function is increasing and decreasing.
Analyzing the Toolkit Functions for Increasing or Decreasing Intervals
Use A Graph to Locate the Absolute Maximum and Absolute Minimum
There is a difference between locating the highest and lowest points on a graph in a region around an open interval (locally) and locating the highest and lowest points on the graph for the entire domain. The coordinates (output) at the highest and lowest points are called the absolute maximum and absolute minimum, respectively.
To locate absolute maxima and minima from a graph, we need to observe the graph to determine where the graph attains it highest and lowest points on the domain of the function. See Figure 13.
Not every function has an absolute maximum or minimum value. The toolkit function is one such function.
The absolute maximum of at is where for all in the domain of
The absolute minimum of at is where for all in the domain of
Access this online resource for additional instruction and practice with rates of change.
3.3 Section Exercises
Can the average rate of change of a function be constant?
If a function is increasing on and decreasing on then what can be said about the local extremum of on
How are the absolute maximum and minimum similar to and different from the local extrema?
How does the graph of the absolute value function compare to the graph of the quadratic function, in terms of increasing and decreasing intervals?
For the following exercises, find the average rate of change of each function on the interval specified for real numbers or in simplest form.
For the following exercises, consider the graph of shown in Figure 15.
Estimate the average rate of change from to
Estimate the average rate of change from to
For the following exercises, use the graph of each function to estimate the intervals on which the function is increasing or decreasing.
For the following exercises, consider the graph shown in Figure 16.
Estimate the intervals where the function is increasing or decreasing.
Estimate the point(s) at which the graph of has a local maximum or a local minimum.
For the following exercises, consider the graph in Figure 17.
If the complete graph of the function is shown, estimate the intervals where the function is increasing or decreasing.
If the complete graph of the function is shown, estimate the absolute maximum and absolute minimum.
Table 3 gives the annual sales (in millions of dollars) of a product from 1998 to 2006. What was the average rate of change of annual sales (a) between 2001 and 2002, and (b) between 2001 and 2004?
(millions of dollars)
For the following exercises, find the average rate of change of each function on the interval specified.
For the following exercises, use a graphing utility to estimate the local extrema of each function and to estimate the intervals on which the function is increasing and decreasing.
Let Find a number such that the average rate of change of the function on the interval is
Let . Find the number such that the average rate of change of on the interval is
At the start of a trip, the odometer on a car read 21,395. At the end of the trip, 13.5 hours later, the odometer read 22,125. Assume the scale on the odometer is in miles. What is the average speed the car traveled during this trip?
A driver of a car stopped at a gas station to fill up his gas tank. He looked at his watch, and the time read exactly 3:40 p.m. At this time, he started pumping gas into the tank. At exactly 3:44, the tank was full and he noticed that he had pumped 10.7 gallons. What is the average rate of flow of the gasoline into the gas tank?
Near the surface of the moon, the distance that an object falls is a function of time. It is given by where is in seconds and is in feet. If an object is dropped from a certain height, find the average velocity of the object from to
- 5http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/showtext.cfm?t=ptb0524. Accessed 3/5/2014.