Learning Objectives
In this section, you will:
 Find the average rate of change of a function.
 Use a graph to determine where a function is increasing, decreasing, or constant.
 Use a graph to locate local maxima and local minima.
 Use a graph to locate the absolute maximum and absolute minimum.
Corequisite Skills
Learning Objectives
 Find the slope of a line (IA 3.2.1)
Objective 1: Find the slope of a line (IA 3.2.1)
In our work with functions we will make observations about when the function increases or decreases and how quickly this change takes place. The average rate of change is a measure of change of a function and tells us how an output quantity, or y value, changes relative to an input quantity, or x value. Finding the average rate of change between two points is equivalent to finding the slope of the line segment connecting these two data points.
$\text{average rate of change}=\frac{\text{change in output}}{\text{change in input}}=\frac{\Delta y}{\Delta x}=\frac{{y}_{2}{y}_{1}}{{x}_{2}{x}_{1}}=\frac{f\left({x}_{2}\right)f\left({x}_{1}\right)}{{x}_{2}{x}_{1}}=\frac{\text{rise}}{\text{run}}$
When interpreting an average rate of change it will be important to consider the units of measurement. Make sure to always attach these units to both the numerator and denominator when they are provided to you.
Quick Guide to the Slopes of Lines
Example 1
Find the slope of the line shown.
Solution
Locate two points on the graph whose coordinates are integers.
$(0,5)=({x}_{1},{y}_{1})$
$\left(3,3\right)=({x}_{2},{y}_{2})$
It may help to visualize this change as $m=\frac{\text{rise}}{\text{run}}$ . Count the rise between the points: down 2 units. Then count the run, or horizontal change: to the right 3 units. Note, since the line goes down, the slope is negative. Use the slope formula: $m=\frac{\text{rise}}{\text{run}}=\frac{({y}_{2}{y}_{1})}{({x}_{2}{x}_{1})}=\frac{35}{30}\frac{2}{3}$
Activity: Finding slopes of lines.
ⓐ Which pair of lines appear parallel? ________ and ________.
Find their slopes: ________; _________
ⓑ Which pair of lines appear perpendicular? ________ and ________.
Find their slopes: ________; _________
ⓒ Complete the following:
Two lines are parallel if their slopes are _________.
Two lines are perpendicular if their slopes are _________.
Practice Makes Perfect
Find the slope of a line and the average rate of change.
Complete this table’s yvalues, and then graph the line. $y=\frac{2}{3}x+1$

What is the slope of this line? ________ What is the yintercept of this line? ( ________ , ________ )
The following table shows the number of Associates degrees awarded (in thousands) in the US for several years.
Year  Number of Associate’s Degrees Earned (in thousands) 

2000  569 
2001  579 
2005  668 
2010  719 
2014  1,003 
Find the following average rates of change, being careful to attach units to your answers.
ⓐ Between 2005 and 2000. Average rate of change= $\frac{f\left({x}_{2}\right)f\left({x}_{1}\right)}{{x}_{2}{x}_{1}}$
ⓑ Between 2001 and 2010. Average rate of change= $\frac{f\left({x}_{2}\right)f\left({x}_{1}\right)}{{x}_{2}{x}_{1}}$
ⓒ Between 2014 and 2010. Average rate of change= $\frac{f\left({x}_{2}\right)f\left({x}_{1}\right)}{{x}_{2}{x}_{1}}$
ⓐ Complete the following table of values for $f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}+2x8$
x  f(x) 

–2  
2  
4 
ⓑ Use the table above to find the average rate of change between x=–2 and x=2.
ⓒ Use the table above to find the average rate of change between x=2 and x=4
ⓓ Sketch the graph of f(x) below and graph the lines with slopes equal to the average rates of change found in parts ⓑ and ⓒ.

ⓐ Complete the following table of values for $g\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x+3}$
x g(x) –1 0 2  ⓑ Use the table above to find the average rate of change between x=–1 and x=0.
 ⓒ Use the table above to find the average rate of change between x=–1 and x=2.
 ⓓ Sketch the graph of g(x) below and graph the lines with slopes equal to the average rates of change found in parts ⓑ and ⓒ.
Gasoline costs have experienced some wild fluctuations over the last several decades. Table 1^{5} lists the average cost, in dollars, of a gallon of gasoline for the years 2005–2012. The cost of gasoline can be considered as a function of year.
$y$  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012 
$C\left(y\right)$  2.31  2.62  2.84  3.30  2.41  2.84  3.58  3.68 
If we were interested only in how the gasoline prices changed between 2005 and 2012, we could compute that the cost per gallon had increased from $2.31 to $3.68, an increase of $1.37. While this is interesting, it might be more useful to look at how much the price changed per year. In this section, we will investigate changes such as these.
Finding the Average Rate of Change of a Function
The price change per year is a rate of change because it describes how an output quantity changes relative to the change in the input quantity. We can see that the price of gasoline in Table 1 did not change by the same amount each year, so the rate of change was not constant. If we use only the beginning and ending data, we would be finding the average rate of change over the specified period of time. To find the average rate of change, we divide the change in the output value by the change in the input value.
The Greek letter $\text{\Delta}$ (delta) signifies the change in a quantity; we read the ratio as “deltay over deltax” or “the change in $y$ divided by the change in $x.$” Occasionally we write $\text{\Delta}f$ instead of $\text{\Delta}y,$ which still represents the change in the function’s output value resulting from a change to its input value. It does not mean we are changing the function into some other function.
In our example, the gasoline price increased by $1.37 from 2005 to 2012. Over 7 years, the average rate of change was
On average, the price of gas increased by about 19.6¢ each year.
Other examples of rates of change include:
 A population of rats increasing by 40 rats per week
 A car traveling 68 miles per hour (distance traveled changes by 68 miles each hour as time passes)
 A car driving 27 miles per gallon (distance traveled changes by 27 miles for each gallon)
 The current through an electrical circuit increasing by 0.125 amperes for every volt of increased voltage
 The amount of money in a college account decreasing by $4,000 per quarter
Rate of Change
A rate of change describes how an output quantity changes relative to the change in the input quantity. The units on a rate of change are “output units per input units.”
The average rate of change between two input values is the total change of the function values (output values) divided by the change in the input values.
How To
Given the value of a function at different points, calculate the average rate of change of a function for the interval between two values ${x}_{1}$ and ${x}_{2}.$
 Calculate the difference ${y}_{2}{y}_{1}=\text{\Delta}y.$
 Calculate the difference ${x}_{2}{x}_{1}=\text{\Delta}x.$
 Find the ratio $\frac{\text{\Delta}y}{\text{\Delta}x}.$
Example 1
Computing an Average Rate of Change
Using the data in Table 1, find the average rate of change of the price of gasoline between 2007 and 2009.
Solution
In 2007, the price of gasoline was $2.84. In 2009, the cost was $2.41. The average rate of change is
Analysis
Note that a decrease is expressed by a negative change or “negative increase.” A rate of change is negative when the output decreases as the input increases or when the output increases as the input decreases.
Try It #1
Using the data in Table 1, find the average rate of change between 2005 and 2010.
Example 2
Computing Average Rate of Change from a Graph
Given the function $g\left(t\right)$ shown in Figure 1, find the average rate of change on the interval $\left[1,2\right].$
Solution
At $t=1,$ Figure 2 shows $g\left(\mathrm{1}\right)=4.$ At $t=2,$ the graph shows $g\left(2\right)=1.$
The horizontal change $\text{\Delta}t=3$ is shown by the red arrow, and the vertical change $\text{\Delta}g(t)=3$ is shown by the turquoise arrow. The average rate of change is shown by the slope of the orange line segment. The output changes by –3 while the input changes by 3, giving an average rate of change of
Analysis
Note that the order we choose is very important. If, for example, we use $\frac{{y}_{2}{y}_{1}}{{x}_{1}{x}_{2}},$ we will not get the correct answer. Decide which point will be 1 and which point will be 2, and keep the coordinates fixed as $\left({x}_{1},{y}_{1}\right)$ and $\left({x}_{2},{y}_{2}\right).$
Example 3
Computing Average Rate of Change from a Table
After picking up a friend who lives 10 miles away and leaving on a trip, Anna records her distance from home over time. The values are shown in Table 2. Find her average speed over the first 6 hours.
t (hours)  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7 
D(t) (miles)  10  55  90  153  214  240  292  300 
Solution
Here, the average speed is the average rate of change. She traveled 282 miles in 6 hours.
The average speed is 47 miles per hour.
Analysis
Because the speed is not constant, the average speed depends on the interval chosen. For the interval [2,3], the average speed is 63 miles per hour.
Example 4
Computing Average Rate of Change for a Function Expressed as a Formula
Compute the average rate of change of $f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}\frac{1}{x}$ on the interval $\text{[2,}\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}\text{4].}$
Solution
We can start by computing the function values at each endpoint of the interval.
Now we compute the average rate of change.
Try It #2
Find the average rate of change of $f\left(x\right)=x2\sqrt{x}$ on the interval $[1,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}9].$
Example 5
Finding the Average Rate of Change of a Force
The electrostatic force $F,$ measured in newtons, between two charged particles can be related to the distance between the particles $d,$ in centimeters, by the formula $F\left(d\right)=\frac{2}{{d}^{2}}.$ Find the average rate of change of force if the distance between the particles is increased from 2 cm to 6 cm.
Solution
We are computing the average rate of change of $F\left(d\right)=\frac{2}{{d}^{2}}$ on the interval $[2,6].$
The average rate of change is $\frac{1}{9}$ newton per centimeter.
Example 6
Finding an Average Rate of Change as an Expression
Find the average rate of change of $g\left(t\right)={t}^{2}+3t+1$ on the interval $[0,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}a].$ The answer will be an expression involving $a$ in simplest form.
Solution
We use the average rate of change formula.
This result tells us the average rate of change in terms of $a$ between $t=0$ and any other point $t=a.$ For example, on the interval $[0,5],$ the average rate of change would be $5+3=8.$
Try It #3
Find the average rate of change of $f(x)={x}^{2}+2x8$ on the interval $[5,a]$ in simplest forms in terms
of $a.$
Using a Graph to Determine Where a Function is Increasing, Decreasing, or Constant
As part of exploring how functions change, we can identify intervals over which the function is changing in specific ways. We say that a function is increasing on an interval if the function values increase as the input values increase within that interval. Similarly, a function is decreasing on an interval if the function values decrease as the input values increase over that interval. The average rate of change of an increasing function is positive, and the average rate of change of a decreasing function is negative. Figure 3 shows examples of increasing and decreasing intervals on a function.
While some functions are increasing (or decreasing) over their entire domain, many others are not. A value of the input where a function changes from increasing to decreasing (as we go from left to right, that is, as the input variable increases) is the location of a local maximum. The function value at that point is the local maximum. If a function has more than one, we say it has local maxima. Similarly, a value of the input where a function changes from decreasing to increasing as the input variable increases is the location of a local minimum. The function value at that point is the local minimum. The plural form is “local minima.” Together, local maxima and minima are called local extrema, or local extreme values, of the function. (The singular form is “extremum.”) Often, the term local is replaced by the term relative. In this text, we will use the term local.
Clearly, a function is neither increasing nor decreasing on an interval where it is constant. A function is also neither increasing nor decreasing at extrema. Note that we have to speak of local extrema, because any given local extremum as defined here is not necessarily the highest maximum or lowest minimum in the function’s entire domain.
For the function whose graph is shown in Figure 4, the local maximum is 16, and it occurs at $x=\mathrm{2.}$ The local minimum is $\mathrm{16}$ and it occurs at $x=2.$
To locate the local maxima and minima from a graph, we need to observe the graph to determine where the graph attains its highest and lowest points, respectively, within an open interval. Like the summit of a roller coaster, the graph of a function is higher at a local maximum than at nearby points on both sides. The graph will also be lower at a local minimum than at neighboring points. Figure 5 illustrates these ideas for a local maximum.
These observations lead us to a formal definition of local extrema.
Local Minima and Local Maxima
A function $f$ is an increasing function on an open interval if $f\left(b\right)>f\left(a\right)$ for any two input values $a$ and $b$ in the given interval where $b>a.$
A function $f$ is a decreasing function on an open interval if $f\left(b\right)<f\left(a\right)$ for any two input values $a$ and $b$ in the given interval where $b>a.$
A function $f$ has a local maximum at $x=b$ if there exists an interval $(a,c)$ with $a<b<c$ such that, for any $x$ in the interval $\left(a,c\right),$ $f\left(x\right)\le f\left(b\right).$ Likewise, $f$ has a local minimum at $x=b$ if there exists an interval $(a,c)$ with $a<b<c$ such that, for any $x$ in the interval $\left(a,c\right),$ $f\left(x\right)\ge f\left(b\right).$
Example 7
Finding Increasing and Decreasing Intervals on a Graph
Given the function $p\left(t\right)$ in Figure 6, identify the intervals on which the function appears to be increasing.
Solution
We see that the function is not constant on any interval. The function is increasing where it slants upward as we move to the right and decreasing where it slants downward as we move to the right. The function appears to be increasing from $t=1$ to $t=3$ and from $t=4$ on.
In interval notation, we would say the function appears to be increasing on the interval (1,3) and the interval $(4,\infty ).$
Analysis
Notice in this example that we used open intervals (intervals that do not include the endpoints), because the function is neither increasing nor decreasing at $t=1$ , $t=3$ , and $t=4$ . These points are the local extrema (two minima and a maximum).
Example 8
Finding Local Extrema from a Graph
Graph the function $f\left(x\right)=\frac{2}{x}+\frac{x}{3}.$ Then use the graph to estimate the local extrema of the function and to determine the intervals on which the function is increasing.
Solution
Using technology, we find that the graph of the function looks like that in Figure 7. It appears there is a low point, or local minimum, between $x=2$ and $x=3,$ and a mirrorimage high point, or local maximum, somewhere between $x=\mathrm{3}$ and $x=\mathrm{2.}$
Analysis
Most graphing calculators and graphing utilities can estimate the location of maxima and minima. Figure 8 provides screen images from two different technologies, showing the estimate for the local maximum and minimum.
Based on these estimates, the function is increasing on the interval $(\infty \text{,}\text{2}\text{.449)}$ and $(2.449\text{,}\infty ).$ Notice that, while we expect the extrema to be symmetric, the two different technologies agree only up to four decimals due to the differing approximation algorithms used by each. (The exact location of the extrema is at $\pm \sqrt{6},$ but determining this requires calculus.)
Try It #4
Graph the function $f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}6{x}^{2}15x+20$ to estimate the local extrema of the function. Use these to determine the intervals on which the function is increasing and decreasing.
Example 9
Finding Local Maxima and Minima from a Graph
For the function $f$ whose graph is shown in Figure 9, find all local maxima and minima.
Solution
Observe the graph of $f.$ The graph attains a local maximum at $x=1$ because it is the highest point in an open interval around $x=1.$ The local maximum is the $y$ coordinate at $x=1,$ which is $2.$
The graph attains a local minimum at $\text{}x=\mathrm{1}$ because it is the lowest point in an open interval around $x=\mathrm{1.}$ The local minimum is the ycoordinate at $x=\mathrm{1},$ which is $\mathrm{2.}$
Analyzing the Toolkit Functions for Increasing or Decreasing Intervals
We will now return to our toolkit functions and discuss their graphical behavior in Figure 10, Figure 11, and Figure 12.
Use A Graph to Locate the Absolute Maximum and Absolute Minimum
There is a difference between locating the highest and lowest points on a graph in a region around an open interval (locally) and locating the highest and lowest points on the graph for the entire domain. The $y\text{}$ coordinates (output) at the highest and lowest points are called the absolute maximum and absolute minimum, respectively.
To locate absolute maxima and minima from a graph, we need to observe the graph to determine where the graph attains it highest and lowest points on the domain of the function. See Figure 13.
Not every function has an absolute maximum or minimum value. The toolkit function $f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}$ is one such function.
Absolute Maxima and Minima
The absolute maximum of $f$ at $x=c$ is $f\left(c\right)$ where $f\left(c\right)\ge f\left(x\right)$ for all $x$ in the domain of $f.$
The absolute minimum of $f$ at $x=d$ is $f\left(d\right)$ where $f\left(d\right)\le f\left(x\right)$ for all $x$ in the domain of $f.$
Example 10
Finding Absolute Maxima and Minima from a Graph
For the function $f$ shown in Figure 14, find all absolute maxima and minima.
Solution
Observe the graph of $f.$ The graph attains an absolute maximum in two locations, $x=\mathrm{2}$ and $x=2,$ because at these locations, the graph attains its highest point on the domain of the function. The absolute maximum is the ycoordinate at $x=\mathrm{2}$ and $x=2,$ which is $16.$
The graph attains an absolute minimum at $x=3,$ because it is the lowest point on the domain of the function’s graph. The absolute minimum is the ycoordinate at $x=3,$ which is $\mathrm{10.}$
Media
Access this online resource for additional instruction and practice with rates of change.
3.3 Section Exercises
Verbal
If a function $f$ is increasing on $(a,b)$ and decreasing on $(b,c),$ then what can be said about the local extremum of $f$ on $(a,c)?$
How does the graph of the absolute value function compare to the graph of the quadratic function, $y={x}^{2},$ in terms of increasing and decreasing intervals?
Algebraic
For the following exercises, find the average rate of change of each function on the interval specified for real numbers $b$ or $h$ in simplest form.
$g\left(x\right)=2{x}^{2}9$ on $\left[4,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}\text{}b\right]$
$k\left(x\right)=4x2$ on $[3,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}\text{}3+h]$
$g\left(x\right)=3{x}^{2}2$ on $[x,x+h]$
$b\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x+3}$ on $[1,1+h]$
$r\left(t\right)=4{t}^{3}$ on $[2,2+h]$
Graphical
For the following exercises, consider the graph of $f$ shown in Figure 15.
Estimate the average rate of change from $x=1$ to $x=4.$
For the following exercises, use the graph of each function to estimate the intervals on which the function is increasing or decreasing.
For the following exercises, consider the graph shown in Figure 16.
Estimate the intervals where the function is increasing or decreasing.
For the following exercises, consider the graph in Figure 17.
If the complete graph of the function is shown, estimate the intervals where the function is increasing or decreasing.
If the complete graph of the function is shown, estimate the absolute maximum and absolute minimum.
Numeric
Table 3 gives the annual sales (in millions of dollars) of a product from 1998 to 2006. What was the average rate of change of annual sales (a) between 2001 and 2002, and (b) between 2001 and 2004?
Year  Sales (millions of dollars) 

1998  201 
1999  219 
2000  233 
2001  243 
2002  249 
2003  251 
2004  249 
2005  243 
2006  233 
For the following exercises, find the average rate of change of each function on the interval specified.
$f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}$ on $[1,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}\text{}5]$
$q\left(x\right)={x}^{3}$ on $[\mathrm{4},\text{2}]$
$y=\frac{1}{x}$ on $[1,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}\text{3}]$
$p\left(t\right)=\frac{\left({t}^{2}4\right)\left(t+1\right)}{{t}^{2}+3}$ on $[\mathrm{3},\text{1}]$
$k\left(t\right)=6{t}^{2}+\frac{4}{{t}^{3}}$ on $[\mathrm{1},3]$
Technology
For the following exercises, use a graphing utility to estimate the local extrema of each function and to estimate the intervals on which the function is increasing and decreasing.
$h\left(x\right)={x}^{5}+5{x}^{4}+10{x}^{3}+10{x}^{2}1$
$k\left(t\right)=3{t}^{\frac{2}{3}}t$
$n\left(x\right)={x}^{4}8{x}^{3}+18{x}^{2}6x+2$
Extension
The graph of the function $f$ is shown in Figure 18.
Based on the calculator screen shot, the point $(1.333,\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0ex}}\text{}5.185)$ is which of the following?
 ⓐa relative (local) maximum of the function
 ⓑthe vertex of the function
 ⓒthe absolute maximum of the function
 ⓓa zero of the function
Let $f(x)=\frac{1}{x}.$ Find a number $c$ such that the average rate of change of the function $f$ on the interval $(1,c)$ is $\frac{1}{4}.$
Let $f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}$ . Find the number $b$ such that the average rate of change of $f$ on the interval $(2,b)$ is $\frac{1}{10}.$
RealWorld Applications
At the start of a trip, the odometer on a car read 21,395. At the end of the trip, 13.5 hours later, the odometer read 22,125. Assume the scale on the odometer is in miles. What is the average speed the car traveled during this trip?
A driver of a car stopped at a gas station to fill up his gas tank. He looked at his watch, and the time read exactly 3:40 p.m. At this time, he started pumping gas into the tank. At exactly 3:44, the tank was full and he noticed that he had pumped 10.7 gallons. What is the average rate of flow of the gasoline into the gas tank?
Near the surface of the moon, the distance that an object falls is a function of time. It is given by $d\left(t\right)=2.6667{t}^{2},$ where $t$ is in seconds and $d\left(t\right)$ is in feet. If an object is dropped from a certain height, find the average velocity of the object from $t=1$ to $t=2.$
Footnotes
 5http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/showtext.cfm?t=ptb0524. Accessed 3/5/2014.