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rotating out and away from the body
abductor pillow
a pillow that keeps the hips in a neutral position to avoid external rotation and adduction
active ROM
range of movement performed independently by the patient
active-assisted ROM
a procedure performed with partial assistance from an external force; the patient is able to perform the ROM exercise but may need additional assistance when they encounter pain or weakness
activity of daily living (ADL)
a routine task of everyday life necessary for independent self-care
movement close to the midline of the body
adipose tissue
body fat
aerobic exercise
any cardiovascular activity that increases a patient’s heart rate and respiration rate
alternating pressure mattress
a mattress that is powered with air and can be programmed to inflate and deflate certain sections in a programmable cycle
state of equilibrium
balance exercise
a movement to reduce the risk of falls among patients by focusing on body alignment and control
a strip of material that can be used for slings, to hold splints in place, provide support for the limb or joint, or restrict movement
basic ADL
an activity to manage basic needs such as toileting, dressing, bathing, eating, and ambulating
a singular assistive device that aids in balance when walking or helps compensate for an injury or disability
a splint that is set around the limb
chemical restraint
any drug that is used to manage a patient’s behavior in order to reduce the safety risk to the patient or others
congenital abnormality
an impairment of body function or structure present at birth
organization of different elements of the complex body, including muscular, skeletal, and sensory functions, to enable the elements to work together effectively
an aid used for standing, walking, and mobility for patients who cannot support the weight of their bodies with their leg, knee, or ankle
external factor
an environmental or social factor that contributes to immobility
external fixation
fixation of a fracture where pins and wires are inserted into the bone percutaneously and held together externally
fibrous connective tissue
a type of tissue that protects, supports, and holds bones, muscles, organs, and other tissues within the body in place
foam mattresses
a mattress made of crosscut foam that allows parts of the mattress to shift along with the patient’s body
foot drop syndrome
the inability to raise the front part of the foot due to weakness and paralysis of the muscles that allow the foot to lift and maintain itself in a perpendicular position
functional brace
a casting that is applied to areas of the limb, leaving the joint free
functional status
a measurement of a patient’s ability to perform physical movements (e.g., walking, standing) and higher-level activities (e.g., ADLs, filling occupational and societal roles)
a manner of walking or moving on foot
gait belt
a strap placed around a patient’s waist to help nurses assist with mobility and transfers
gel overlay mattress
a mattress made with a combination of foam and gel; it conforms to the patient’s body and retains less body heat
immobilization device
any device, including casts, braces, slings, traction, and external fixation, that keeps a part of the patient’s body in a fixed position
instrumental ADL
a complex activity that keeps patients independent in the community, such as managing medications, preparing food, and managing household chores
internal factor
a factor that affects mobility that is specific to each individual and may impact an individual’s mobility in different ways
isokinetic exercise
a resistance-based exercises that provide variable resistance to a movement
isometric exercise
a movement related to contractions of specific muscles or group of muscles and then their release
isotonic exercises
a movement that require muscles to resist constant weight over a range of motion
low air loss mattress
a mattress that delivers active therapy by pushing air through tiny holes on the surface of the mattress to keep the skin dry, wick moisture, and accommodate pressure points. It is attached to an air pump or compressor that maintains inflation
the ability of a patient to change and control their body position
a situation in which an affected limb or limbs cannot support any weight
orthostatic hypotension
a temporary drop in blood pressure when moving from a supine position to a sitting or standing position
passive ROM
range of motion performed when a patient is unable to move or not permitted to move a body part
the wavelike movement of the gastrointestinal system to move contents forward
physical restraint
any manual, physical, or mechanical device, material, or equipment attached to or adjacent to the patient’s body that the individual cannot remove easily and restricts movement or normal access to one’s body
podus boot
a device used in foot drop syndrome that covers the ankle and foot to support the muscles, immobilize joints, and correct positioning
a fundamental mechanism to ensure balance against gravity, aligning the body, and assisting in external environmental perception and action
the body’s ability to sense movement, action, and location of parts of the body
range of motion (ROM)
the extent to which a part of the body can be moved around a joint or a fixed point
changing the position of a patient
any measure, physical or pharmacological, that prevents or reduces the full movement of the patient during hospital care
skeletal traction
the use of pins wires, or screws inserted distally from the fracture of the bone to create traction by attaching a string and weight
sliding board
a piece of equipment that is flat and rigid, and creates a bridge for transfers; used for patients who cannot complete a transfer between two surfaces or if a standing transfer is not safe
a device used to support an upper limb by limiting movement or immobilizing the arm to prevent movement in the wrist, elbow, or shoulder
sling transfer
a patient transfer from a bed, wheelchair, toilet, or shower using a lift machine and flat piece of material placed under the patient
specialty mattress
a mattress designed to relieve pressure over bony prominences to prevent injury
a firm support that can be made of metal, plastic, or plaster
stand and pivot
a technique for patients, who can partially weight-bear, by moving from sitting to standing and then just turning with one leg to sitting again
the quality or state of being strong
strength exercise
a movement focused on increasing the maximum amount of force a muscle can exert
movements to lengthen muscles
therapeutic exercise
an intentional movement to develop strength, endurance, and increased range of motion and flexibility
the process of pulling on a broken bone or dislocated part of the body, in a slow and steady manner, to realign and stabilize it into the proper position
venous stasis
a decrease in venous return to the heart
vestibular function
the body’s ability to compensate in response to self and external forces and keep balance
an aide for ambulation and transfers that has four points of contact with the ground
wedge pillow
a large triangular pillow made of foam that elevates different parts of the body
the ability of a patient to put all their weight on a specific limb that is recovering from injury

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