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abrasion
an area damaged by scraping
acute radiation syndrome (ARS)
an acute illness related to full-body exposure to high levels of radiation
acute wound
a wound that occurs suddenly and progresses through expected stages of healing
angiogenesis
a process where capillaries grow across the wound, increasing blood supply and oxygen
arthrofibrosis
scar tissue formed around a joint during the healing process, which limits range of motion
autolytic debridement
the process of using occlusive dressings to enhance the body’s own defense mechanisms to liquefy or soften necrotic tissue
avulsion
a forcible tearing off of skin or another part of the body
Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BWAT)
an assessment tool to evaluate wound status and healing; it measures thirteen wound characteristics
blanching
the temporary whitening or lightening of the skin around the wound site upon applying pressure
Braden Scale
an assessment tool that evaluates the relative risk of a patient developing skin breakdown and pressure injuries. The scores can be used to tailor pressure injury prevention interventions to at-risk patients
burn
an injury to the skin caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy
burn shock
a condition in which the circulatory system becomes dysfunctional and unable to compensate for the loss of blood, plasma, and fluid, even with aggressive fluid replacement
chemical burn
a burn caused by the reaction of human skin to toxic chemicals
chronic wound
a wound in which no healing occurs for at least three months
closed wound
a wound that does not have a break in the skin and occurs under the skin’s surface
cognition
the mental processes that take place in the brain such as thinking, language, learning, memory, perception, and attention
collagen
a whitish protein substance that adds flexible strength to the wound
contusion
a region of injured tissue or skin in which blood capillaries have been ruptured
debridement
the removal of slough or necrotic tissue and foreign material by various methods
decontamination
the removal of residual chemical or radiological particles
desiccation
unintentional wound or tissue dehydration
diabetic neuropathy
nerve damage that causes numbing sensations
electrical burn
a burn that occurs when an electrical source meets skin and transfers energy, damaging local tissue
enzymatic debridement
the application of commercially prepared enzymes that accelerate the body’s autolytic process (i.e., cell breakdown by enzymes contained in the affected tissue)
epibole
rolled or curled-under wound edges that slow or stop the wound-healing process
epidermis
the outermost layer of the skin consisting of epithelial cells
epithelialization
the development of new epidermis; the growth of skin cells over skin and wound surface; healing to close a wound
erythema
a change in skin color due to a change in blood flow
eschar
dead tissue that forms over healthy skin and then, over time, falls off or sheds
excoriation
the loss of the superficial layers of the skin, also known as a denuded area
exudate
a liquid that is secreted from a wound
fistula
an abnormal passage from one internal organ or vessel to another or an internal organ or vessel to the outside of the body
fluctuance
a tense area of skin with a wave-like or boggy feeling upon palpation
fluid resuscitation
the administration of IV fluids to ensure adequate intravascular fluid
foul purulent
a thick yellow to green exudate with odor
fourth-degree burn
a burn that involves everything from the epidermis down into bone or muscle
friction
a force created by two surfaces rubbing against each other
frostbite
a type of burn in which the water in tissues freeze and cause deep tissue injuries and necrosis
full-thickness (third-degree) burn
a burn involving all of the epidermis, dermis, and some of the subcutaneous fat and deeper structures
granulation tissue
delicate, new, reddish connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that bleed easily but provide the framework for scar tissue development
hematoma
a localized collection of blood under the skin that may appear reddish blue with swelling
hemostasis
the cessation of bleeding
hypoproteinemia
abnormally low amounts of serum protein from the diet
hypovolemic shock
a type of shock due to decreased fluid volume in blood vessels that impacts the blood flow and transport of oxygen to organs and tissues
incision
a surgical cut made in skin or flesh
induration
a thickened or hardened area
inhalation injury
an injury caused by breathing in particulates, such as heat and smoke from fires, or chemical burning of upper airways
intentional wound
a planned wound; the result of a treatment or therapy
laceration
a deep cut or tear in the skin or flesh
liquefaction necrosis
death of body tissues
localized wound healing factor
a factor that affects wound healing directly (i.e., desiccation, maceration, trauma, pressure, excessive bleeding and edema, and infection)
maceration
the softening of tissues caused by prolonged wetting or soaking
mechanical debridement
the application of external physical force to remove debris or necrotic tissue
Montgomery strap
a tie that attaches to an adhesive backing that holds a dressing in place
NPO
nothing by mouth
open wound
a break in the skin or mucous membranes, caused either intentionally or unintentionally
osteomyelitis
a bone infection
palmar method
a strategy for determining TBSA of small burns
Parkland burn formula
a commonly used formula for determining the amount of fluid resuscitation needed for patients who have been burned
partial-thickness (second-degree) burn
a burn involving the epidermis and some portion of the dermis
penetration
a wound caused by objects that pierce the skin and lacerate or damage adjacent tissue
phagocytosis
the movement of leukocytes and macrophages into the interstitial space to ingest bacteria and cellular debris
pressure injury
a localized ischemic lesion of the skin and underlying tissue caused by external pressure that impairs blood and lymph flow
primary intention healing
a type of healing in which the wound edges have been approximated with little to no tissue loss and show formation of nominal granulation tissue and scarring
puncture
a wound made by a pointed object
purulent
pus; tan to yellow exudate
Rule of Nines
a strategy for determining TBSA of large burns
sanguineous
relating to bloody exudate
secondary intention healing
a type of healing in which extensive wounds that have significant tissue loss make approximating edges difficult or not a good option
serosanguineous
relating to a mix of serous fluid and blood in exudate
serous
relating to thin, watery, clear exudate
shear
the sliding of one tissue layer over the other
skin grafting
transplanting a piece of healthy skin from one area of the body to another
slough
a nonviable layer of dead tissue that is a stringy, moist, and yellow, tan, gray, green, or brown
stable eschar
an area of eschar on the skin that is adherent, dry, and intact without fluctuance
superficial (first-degree) burn
a burn involving only the epidermis
superinfection
a secondary infection that is unrelated to the original infection and results from opportunistic colonization after immunosuppression
Surgical Site Event Risk Assessment (SSERA) model
an assessment tool to determine the relative risk of a patient developing a surgical site infection after a surgical procedure
systemic wound healing factor
factors that occur throughout the body and are not related to the wound itself (e.g., age, venous insufficiency, poor oxygenation, obesity, diabetes, medications, and smoking or alcohol use)
tertiary intention healing
delayed primary intention healing where the wound is left open for three to five days to allow edema or infection to resolve or to allow any exudate to drain
thermal burn
a burn related to temperature
tissue necrosis
tissue death
total body surface area (TBSA)
percentage of the body’s surface
trauma
injury caused by a blunt or blow force
tunneling
erosion in channels beneath intact skin surrounding a wound
ulcer
an open sore caused by poor blood flow
undermining
erosion beneath the skin’s surface beyond visible edges
unintentional wound
a wound from an unexpected trauma
Wagner Ulcer Classification System
an assessment tool to describe severity of diabetic foot ulcers
wound
an injury that causes a disruption of normal skin or tissue integrity
wound thickness
the amount of skin breakdown, fat exposure, and bone and/or muscle involvement in a wound
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