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alternative therapies
nonmainstream approaches that are used in place of conventional Western medical care
a traditional Hindu form of medicine from India that is based on the idea that disease is caused by an imbalance in the body
a person whose identity matches their sex assigned at birth
when a culture emphasizes the importance of the community over the individual
complementary therapies
nonmainstream approaches to health that are used alongside conventional Western medical care
cultural blindness
the belief that all cultural groups are the same and share identical experiences
cultural competence
applying evidence-based nursing in agreement with the cultural values, beliefs, worldview, and practices of patients to produce improved patient outcomes
cultural humility
a humble and respectful attitude toward individuals of other cultures that pushes one to challenge their own cultural biases, realize they cannot know everything about other cultures, and approach learning about other cultures as a lifelong goal and process
cultural imposition
the imposition of one’s own values, beliefs, and practices upon another person or group
cultural knowledge
seeking information about cultural health beliefs and values to understand patients’ worldviews
cultural negotiation
a process by which the patient and nurse seek a mutually acceptable way to deal with competing interests of nursing care, prescribed medical care, and the patient’s cultural needs
cultural self-awareness
a person’s understanding of their own culture and its impact on themselves
culturally responsive care
care that occurs when an individual’s cultural beliefs are integrated into their health care
a set of beliefs, attitudes, and practices shared by a group of people or community which is accepted, followed, and passed down to other members of the group
Culture Care Theory (CCT)
(also known as Theory of Culture Care: Diversity and Universality) framework for transcultural nursing and the development and practice of culturally competent nursing care
culture conflict
tension or opposition between different cultures
a holistic practice rooted in beliefs that health is achieved through the right balance of mind, body, and spirit
the belief that one’s culture (or race, ethnicity, country) is better than and preferable to another’s
explicit bias
a consciously held set of beliefs about a particular person, situation, or group of people based on characteristics
gender identity
a person’s inner sensibility that they are a man, a woman, or perhaps neither
health disparity
differences in health outcomes that result from social determinants of health
health equality
the principle of ensuring all individuals, regardless of their background or socioeconomic status, have equal access to healthcare resources and opportunities
health equity
when everyone has a fair opportunity to obtain optimal health
holistic nursing care
nursing care that emphasizes the healing of the whole person, including mind, body, and soul
implicit bias
an automatic reaction toward a person, situation, or group of people involving subconscious feelings, perceptions, attitudes, and stereotypes
the practice of creating an environment in which individuals of all backgrounds feel respected, valued, and supported
when a culture focuses on the importance of the individual over community
component of cultural humility that involves respect for the patient’s culture and openness to their beliefs and experiences
component of cultural humility that consists of a personal awareness of one’s own limited knowledge of the patient’s culture
a principle and moral obligation to act on the basis of equality and equity
the belief that races are distinct from one another and that there is a hierarchy to race, implying that races are unequal
sexual orientation
a person’s physical and emotional interest or desire for others
social determinant of health (SDOH)
economic, social, and environmental factors that influence an individual’s health and well-being
the assumption that a person has the attributes, traits, beliefs, and values of a cultural group because they are a member of that group
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
an ancient practice based on the ideas of Qi and yin and yang
traditional healing
various medicines and healing practices around the world that differ from the modern, Western healthcare system
transcultural nursing
nursing that incorporates cultural beliefs and practices of individuals to help them maintain and regain health or to face death in a meaningful way
a person whose gender identity or expression differs from traditional cultural gender roles for one’s sex assigned at birth

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