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accommodation
the ability to adjust from near to far vision
anosmia
inability to identify odors
aphasia
difficulty with all forms of communication
arachnoid
middle layer of the meninges between dura and pia mater
autonomic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary body functions to maintain and restore homeostasis
basal ganglia
masses of nuclei located in the deep cerebral hemispheres
bradykinesia
slow voluntary movements and speech
brain lateralization
communication between the left and right hemispheres
central nervous system (CNS)
includes the brain and spinal cord
cephalalgia
headache
cerebral cortex
a wrinkled outer layer of gray matter
chorea
rapid, jerky, involuntary movements
contralateral
occurs on opposite side of body
convergence
the action of the eyes moving inward to focus with near vision
corpus callosum
major communication pathway between the two brain hemispheres
delirium
acute, reversible confusion that may be due to an infection, fever, or lack of oxygen
dementia
chronic, irreversible confusion
demyelination
the destruction of the protective myelin that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord that results in impairment of nerve impulse transmissions
dermatome
an area of the skin supplied by a single spinal nerve that sends information to the brain for processing
diencephalon
the interbrain, which contains the hypothalamus and thalamus
dura mater
outermost layer of the meninges
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
dysphasia
difficulty speaking
dysphonia
voice impairment
epilepsy
a chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent (two or more) seizures that are not related to a reversible stressor and occur more than 24 hours apart
hypertonia
increased muscle tone
hypokinesia
diminished movement
hypotonia
decreased muscle tone
innervated
supplying or being supplied with nerves
ipsilateral
occurs on same side of body
mydriasis
pupil dilation
myoclonus
involuntary muscle jerks
nuchal rigidity
stiff, painful neck
nystagmus
an involuntary, rhythmic, back-and-forth movement of the eyes
paraplegia
lower body paralysis
parasympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that opposes the sympathetic nervous system and regulates automatic bodily functions in times of rest and relaxation
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
includes the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and autonomic nervous system
peripheral neuropathy
weakness, numbness, or pain from nerve damage to the peripheral nervous system
photophobia
sensitivity to light
pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges
postictal state
phase that often follows a seizure and can include deep sleep, confusion, headache, and muscle soreness
primary headache
occurs independently and is not caused by another medical condition
proprioception
the body’s ability to sense movement, action, and location of parts of the body
reflex
involuntary movement
response
actions or changes triggered by sensory stimuli or input
secondary headache
symptom of another health disorder that causes pain-sensitive nerve endings to be pressed on or pulled out of place
sensation
receiving information about the environment
stereognosis
the ability to perceive the physical form and identity of a familiar object, such as a key or paper clip, on the basis of tactile stimuli alone; often referred to as monofilament testing
sympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that responds to perceived stressful or dangerous situations
tetraplegia
paralysis of all extremities
transection
severing
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
stroke symptom that lasts less than 1 hour without evidence of cerebral infarction
trigeminal neuralgia
severe facial pain
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