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ankylosing spondylitis
a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the spine and sacroiliac joint
articular cartilage
smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together and allows the bones to glide over each other with very little friction
bone (also, osseous tissue)
a hard, dense connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton, the support structure of the body
bone marrow
the softer connective tissue that fills the interior of most bones
carpal tunnel syndrome
pain, numbness, and muscle weakness caused by compression of the median nerve that runs through the carpal tunnel in the wrist
a semirigid form of connective tissue, provides flexibility and smooth surfaces for movement
cauda equina syndrome
a condition of symptoms including loss of bladder or bowel function, increasing leg numbness, and pain
compartment syndrome
occurs when increased pressure in a confined body space compromises blood flow to muscles and nerves, causing tissue ischemia
a popping or crackling sensation when the skin is palpated; it is a sign of air trapped under the subcutaneous tissues
De Quervain tendonitis
condition that occurs on the thumb side of the wrist
degenerative joint disease (DJD) (osteoarthritis)
the constant cycle of inflammation and joint damage that leads to a loss of the articular cartilage cushion, creating pain, inflammation, and limited joint movement
inflammation of the area of attachment of ligament or tendon to bone
flatback syndrome
characterized by missing lumbar lordosis of the spine, creating a flat spine
ganglion cyst
a fluid-filled lump that most often occurs at the back of the wrist, over tendon sheath or joint
a type of arthritis that causes swollen, red, hot, and stiff joints due to the buildup of uric acid
hallux valgus (bunion)
a localized swelling on the medial side of the foot, next to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe
a deformity where the toe bends at the second joint, causing a hammer-type shape
the production of blood cells
excessive lordotic curve of the spine
the location where bones come together
an exaggeration of the curvature of the thoracic spine
band of tissue that connects bones to one another, provides support and stability, and enhances joint movements
lumbar lordosis
inward curve above the buttocks
musculoskeletal system
composed of bones, muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that support the body, allow movement, and protect vital organs
bone development
a decrease in bone mass and density that thins and weakens bones causing them to become fragile and break easily
inability to move
loss of sensation, or tingling, in an extremity
passive range of motion
the degree of range of motion demonstrated in a joint when the examiner is providing the movement
pes planus (flat feet)
a common foot deformity characterized by the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot
lack of palpable pulse
red marrow
tissue that produces red and white blood cells and platelets; where hematopoiesis takes place
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
a type of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints due to inflammation caused by an autoimmune disease
horizontal curvature of the spine
skeletal muscle
produces movement, assists in maintaining posture, protects internal organs, and generates body heat
skeletal system
the body system composed of bones and cartilage
skin commensal
organism that normally resides on our skin
stenosing tenosynovitis
involves the flexor tendons of the fingers and causes the flexor tendons of a finger or thumb to freeze in the bent position
synovial fluid
a thick, slimy fluid that provides lubrication to further reduce friction between the bones of the joint
synovial joint
has a fluid-filled joint cavity where the articulating surfaces of the bones contact and move smoothly against each other
band of fibrous collagenous tissue that provides a continuation of the muscle sheath to enable muscle attachment to the periosteum of bones
inflammation of a tendon
inflammation of the tendon and the surrounding sheath
yellow marrow
tissue that produces fat, cartilage, and bone and contains adipose tissue; the triglycerides stored in the adipocytes of the tissue can serve as a source of energy

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