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adventitious
occurring in an unusual place or manner
agonal breathing
irregular, labored breathing with gasping
alveoli
clusters of milk-secreting cells located within the breast
apnea
the cessation of breathing
atelectasis
the collapse of alveoli in the lungs, resulting in limited air movement and decreased gas exchange
bradypnea
a slower-than-normal respiratory rate (fewer than twelve breaths per minute in adults) at rest
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchial tubes, often occurring secondary to a respiratory infection
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a cyclical breathing pattern involving periods of apnea and hyperventilation that often occurs at end of life
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways and lungs
clavicular notch
the shallow depression located on either side at the superior-lateral margins of the manubrium
coarse crackles
intermittent, low-pitched gurgling sounds heard on inspiration
crepitus
a popping or crackling sensation when the skin is palpated; it is a sign of air trapped under the subcutaneous tissues
dyspnea
difficult, labored breathing pattern
expiration
the movement of air out of the lungs
facet
the articulation site where the rib attaches to the thoracic vertebrae
fibroelastic membrane
a flexible membrane that closes the posterior surface of the trachea, allowing it to stretch and expand slightly during inhalation and exhalation
fine crackles (rales)
intermittent high-pitched popping or crackling sounds heard on inspiration
friction rub
a grating sound heard on either inspiration or expiration
hilum
the concave region where blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter the lungs
immune system
a complex collection of cells and organs that destroys or neutralizes pathogens that would otherwise cause disease or death
inspiration
the movement of air into the lungs
interstitial space
the area between individual cells in the tissues
jugular (suprasternal) notch
the shallow, U-shaped border at the top of the manubrium of the sternum between the medial ends of the clavicles
Kussmaul respiration
a deep, rapid breathing pattern associated with metabolic acidosis
lactiferous ducts
milk-secreting openings located on the surface of the nipple
lactiferous sinus
a glandular lobe within the breast itself that contains groups of milk-secreting cells
lymph
interstitial fluid that has entered the lymphatic system
lymph node
a small bean-shaped organ that composes part of the lymphatic system
lymphadenopathy
swelling of the lymph nodes
lymphatic system
system of vessels, cells, and organs that carry excess fluids to the bloodstream and filter pathogens from the blood through lymph nodes
lymphedema
accumulation of protein-rich interstitial fluid in the tissue spaces as a result of lymphatic system blockage or damage
mammary glands
modified sweat glands located in the breasts that makes breast milk
manubrium
the wider, superior portion of the sternum
metastasis
the spread of cells to a distant site, such as with cancer cells
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
a cessation of breathing that occurs during sleep
orthopnea
difficulty breathing when lying flat
parietal pleura
the outermost pleural membrane layer that connects to the thoracic wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)
dyspnea that occurs abruptly during the night, usually waking the patient from sleep
pleura
the double-layered serous membrane that surrounds each lung
pleural cavity
the compartment enclosing the lung, created by the visceral and parietal membrane layers
pleural effusion
an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax
an abnormal accumulation of air in the pleural space
pulmonary edema
a buildup of fluid in the veins and alveoli of the lungs caused by the inability of the heart to adequately circulate blood
respiratory capacity
the combination of two or more selected respiratory volumes, which further describes the amount of air in the lungs during a given time
respiratory volume
the amount of air moved by or associated with the lungs at a given point in the respiratory cycle
retraction
the “pulling in” of muscles between the ribs or in the neck when breathing, indicating difficulty breathing or respiratory distress
rhonchi
continuous, low-pitched whistling-type noises produced during expiration (sometimes during inspiration)
sternoclavicular joint
the site where the clavicle and sternum are attached
sternum
the elongated bony structure that anchors the anterior thoracic cage
stridor
a high-pitched “crowing” sound heard only on inspiration
tachypnea
a respiratory rate that exceeds 20 breaths per minute
thoracic cage
the anatomical structure that includes the twelve ribs and sternum
thorax
the area of the body commonly known as the chest
total lung capacity (TLC)
the sum of all the lung volumes
trachea
the lowest structure of the upper airway, adjacent to the esophagus, that connects the lung bronchi and the larynx and provides a route for air to enter and exit the lungs; also known as the windpipe
visceral pleura
the innermost pleural membrane layer that lies superficial to the lungs
wheeze
a continuous, high-pitched whistling-type noise produced during expiration (sometimes during inspiration)
xiphoid process
the inferior tip of the sternum
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