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acromegaly
rare hormonal disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces an excessive amount of growth hormone (GH)
adenoids
lymphoid tissue that traps and destroys invading pathogens that enter during inhalation
adenoma
noncancerous tumor
amblyopia (also, lazy eye)
reduced vision in one eye due to improper development
anisocoria
unequal pupil sizes in both eyes
astigmatism
blurred or distorted vision due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens
autoimmune disease
occurs when the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues
Bell palsy
neurological disorder characterized by the sudden onset of facial muscle weakness or paralysis
candidiasis (also, thrush)
fungal infection that appears as white patches
cataract
clouding of the eye’s natural lens
cauliflower ear
deformed ear, resembling cauliflower, due to repeated trauma to the ear
cerumen
earwax
cervical vertebrae
series of seven small bones that make up the upper part of the vertebral column, also known as the spine
chalazion
noninfectious bump on the eyelid caused by a blocked oil gland
ciliary muscle
controls the shape of the lens to help with focusing on near and distant objects
cleft lip
birth defect that involves a partial or complete failure of the right and left portions of the upper lip to fuse together, leaving a cleft (gap)
cleft palate
birth defect resulting from a failure of the two halves of the hard palate to completely come together and fuse at the midline, thus leaving a gap between the nasal and oral cavities
cochlea
snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that the brain can interpret as sound
color blindness
difficulty distinguishing certain colors, often red and green or blue and yellow
concussion
a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when the brain experiences a sudden and forceful movement within the skull
conductive hearing loss
occurs when something in the external or middle ear is obstructing the transmission of sound
cone
photoreceptor that is primarily responsible for color vision and visual acuity
congenital ear pit
small depression near the external ear present at birth
congenital ear tag
small piece of extra tissue present at birth
conjunctiva
thin, transparent membrane covering the front surface of the eye
conjunctivitis (also, pink eye)
inflammation of the conjunctiva
connective tissue disease
disorder affecting tissues such as skin, tendons, and cartilage
cornea
clear, dome-shaped front surface of the eye
corneal abrasion
scratch or injury to the cornea’s surface
corneal scar
tissue that forms after the healing of a deep eye injury
Cushing syndrome (also, hypercortisolism)
characterized by an excessive and prolonged exposure to high levels of the hormone cortisol
deviated septum
thin wall (nasal septum) that separates the two nasal passages is displaced or shifted to one side
diplopia
seeing two images of a single object
dry mouth
reduced saliva production
earwax impaction
a buildup of earwax (cerumen)
ectropion
outward turning of the lower eyelid
enlarged tonsils
swollen tonsil
epiglottis
a flexible piece of cartilage that covers the opening of the trachea during swallowing to prevent ingested material from entering the trachea
epiglottitis
inflammation of the epiglottis
epistaxis (also, nosebleed)
bleeding from the blood vessels within the nasal passages
erythroplakia
red patches on the oral mucosa
ethmoid bone
bone located between the eye sockets and forms part of the nasal cavity
eustachian tube
connects the middle ear to the back of the nose
exophthalmos
bulging or protruding eyeballs
external auditory canal
a tubelike structure that connects the pinna to the eardrum
external ear
composed of pinna (auricle) and external auditory canal
extraocular movement
movement of the eye that is controlled by a group of muscles surrounding each eye
eyebrow
the hair-covered ridge above the eye that helps protect the eye from sweat and direct sunlight
eyelashes
short hairs along the eyelid edge that helps prevent debris from entering the eye
eyelid
the movable fold of skin and muscle that covers and protects the front of the eye
facial drooping
an asymmetrical facial expression that occurs due to damage of the nerve
flash
brief, flickering light or sensation that occurs in the visual field
floater
small, semitransparent spot or shape that appears to “float” in the field of vision
foul taste
bad taste in the mouth
frontal bone
bone that forms the forehead and the upper portion of the eye sockets
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
condition resulting from chronic acid reflux
glaucoma
a group of eye disorders characterized by increased intraocular pressure that damages the optic nerve, causing gradual peripheral vision loss and potential blindness
gum disease
infection of the tissues that hold the teeth in place
gustation
taste
halitosis
persistent foul-smelling or bad breath
halo
glowing circle or ring around a light source
headache
a common and uncomfortable sensation of pain or discomfort in the head or upper neck area
hordeolum (also, stye)
painful, localized infection or inflammation of an eyelid gland
hyperopia (also, farsightedness)
distant objects are clearer than close ones
inner ear
composed of the cochlea and the vestibular system
inner ear trauma
trauma to the head or ears that results in inner ear damage
iris
colored part of the eye
labyrinthitis
inflammation of the inner ear
lacrimal duct
drains tears from the eye’s surface to the nasal cavity
lacrimal gland
produces tears that keep the eye moist
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx (vocal cords)
larynx
tubular airway structure at the superior part of the trachea that connects the pharynx to the trachea and helps regulate the volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs; contains the vocal cords
lens
transparent, flexible structure located behind the iris
leukoplakia
thickened, white patches on the oral mucosa
levator scapulae
muscle located along the side of the neck
linear scleroderma
a line of scleroderma
macrotia
abnormally large ears compared to typical proportions
macula
small, central area of the retina responsible for central vision and color perception
macular degeneration
gradual and progressive damage to the macula
mandible
lower jaw bone
mastoid process
bony prominence behind the ear
maxilla
upper jaw bone
Ménière disease
disorder of the inner ear characterized by episodes of vertigo (spinning sensation), fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear
microtia
a congenital condition where the external ear is underdeveloped or absent
miosis
abnormal constriction of the pupil
morphea
patches of scleroderma
mydriasis
pupil dilation
myopia (nearsightedness)
distant objects appear blurry while close objects are clear
myringitis
inflammation of the eardrum
myxedema
severe form of hypothyroidism that occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones
nasal polyp
noncancerous growth that develops inside the nasal passages or sinuses
nasal septum
internal wall, composed of bone and cartilage, that divides the nose into left and right nostrils
night blindness
difficulty seeing in low-light conditions
nystagmus
an involuntary, rhythmic, back-and-forth movement of the eyes
occipital bone
bone that forms the back and base of the cranium
olfaction
smell
optic atrophy
degeneration of the optic nerve fibers
optic disc
the area where the optic nerve exits the retina
optic nerve
the bundle of nerve fibers that carries visual information from the retina to the brain for processing
orbit
bony socket that houses the eyeball and the muscles that move the eyeball
otitis externa (also, “swimmer’s ear”)
an infection or inflammation of the external ear canal, usually caused by water exposure or bacterial/fungal infections
otitis media (also, middle ear infection)
Eustachian tube becomes inflamed and the middle ear fills with fluid, causing ear pain and irritability
papilledema
swelling of the optic disc at the back of the eye due to increased intracranial pressure
paranasal sinuses
a group of air-filled spaces within the bones of the face and skull, located around the nose and above the eyes
parietal bones
bones that form the majority of the upper sides and the roof of the cranium
perforated eardrum
a hole or tear in the tympanic membrane
peripheral vision
ability to perceive objects, movement, and light outside the central area of focus
peritonsillar abscess
a collection of pus behind the tonsils that can cause severe sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and voice changes
persistent toothache
toothache that will not go away
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
pharynx
muscular tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the voice box (larynx) and the esophagus (food pipe); also known as the throat
photophobia
sensitivity to light
presbycusis
sensorineural hearing loss that occurs with aging due to gradual nerve degeneration
presbyopia
age-related difficulty in focusing on close objects
pterion
point where the frontal, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones meet
pterygium
a growth of tissue on the conjunctiva that can extend onto the cornea
ptosis
drooping of the upper eyelid
pupil
black circular opening in the center of the iris
Raynaud phenomenon
a condition that causes pale or blue fingers with cold exposure
retina
innermost layer of the eye that contains photoreceptors (rods and cones)
rheumatic disease
condition that primarily affects the joints, muscles, and bones
rhinitis
inflammation of the nasal passages
Rinne test
clinical test that compares air conduction (AC) and bone conduction (BC) to assess whether hearing loss is due to conductive or sensorineural factors
rod
photoreceptor that is responsible for vision in low-light conditions and for detecting movement
Romberg test
clinical assessment used to assess balance
scalene muscles
muscles located on the side of the neck
sclera
white, tough outer covering of the eye
scleroderma (also, systemic sclerosis)
a chronic, autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the skin
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by pathology of the inner ear, cranial nerve VIII, or auditory areas of the cerebral cortex
simple goiter (also, endemic goiter)
noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland that results in visible swelling of the neck
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sphenoid bone
bone that sits at the base of the skull
Stahl ear (also, “Spock ear”)
condition involves a pointed or elflike appearance of the upper part of the ear due to an extra fold
stapes (also, stirrup)
the smallest bone in the human body; transmits vibrations from the incus to the oval window of the cochlea
sternocleidomastoid
muscle that runs diagonally from the base of the skull behind the ear to the sternum and clavicle
strabismus
misalignment of the eyes causing one eye to turn inward, outward, upward, or downward while the other eye remains focused
sutures
fibrous joints that connect the bones of the skull
temporal bones
bones located on the sides and base of the skull
thyroid
a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of the neck, just below the Adam’s apple (thyroid cartilage)
tinnitus
ringing, buzzing, or hissing sounds in the ears
tonsillar exudate
white or yellow patches on the tonsils
tooth decay
visible cavities or holes in the outer sruface of a tooth or enamel
tooth mobility
teeth feel loose or shift position
tooth sensitivity
sharp pain or discomfort when consuming hot, cold, sweet, or acidic foods and beverages
trapezius
large muscle that extends from the base of the skull down to the upper back
traumatic brain injury (TBI)
damage to the brain caused by a sudden, external force or trauma
turbinates
a bony structure covered in mucous membrane that protrudes into a nasal cavity and helps to humidify and filter the air
tympanic membrane retraction
the eardrum is pulled or retracted into the middle ear
tympanosclerosis
involves the formation of thickened or scarred areas on the eardrum due to repeated infections or inflammation
vertigo
sensation of spinning or dizziness
vestibular system
composed of the semicircular canals and the vestibule
visual acuity
measures a person’s ability to see details at a specific distance
visual field
area that an individual can see when their gaze is fixed straight ahead
visual reflex
automatic and involuntary response of the eyes and the body to visual stimuli
vitreous humor
a gel-like substance that fills the space within the eye
Weber test
clinical test used to determine whether hearing loss is present in one ear or if it is roughly equal in both ears
zygomatic bone
cheekbone
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