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active transport
involves moving solutes and ions across a cell membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
severe and generalized edema throughout the body
BUN to creatinine ratio
a comparison of BUN to creatinine to determine if alterations in BUN and creatinine are related to changes in fluid volume or kidney filtration
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)
a urinary tract infection that develops directly related to the presence of an IUC
procedure to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys cannot
the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration to equalize the concentration of solutes throughout an area
swelling caused by excessive buildup of fluid in tissue spaces or a body cavity
sunken eyes
extracellular fluid (ECF)
fluid located outside of cells
occurs when hydrostatic pressure pushes fluids and solutes through a permeable membrane so they can be excreted
fluid balance
the difference between intake and output
fluid volume deficit (FVD)
results from a loss of body fluids or fluid that becomes unavailable in the body for use
fluid volume excess (FVE)
increased fluid retained in the intravascular compartment
functional urinary incontinence
the inability to access a toilet due to physical or cognitive challenges
the maintenance of equilibrium of two or more interdependent elements
serum calcium level >10.5 mg/dL
serum chloride level >105 mEq/L
serum potassium level > 5.1 mEq/L
magnesium level >2.2 mg/dL
phosphate level >4.8 mg/dL
hypertonic solution
has a higher concentration of dissolved particles than does blood
excessive fluid volume
total serum calcium level <8.5 mg/dL or an ionized calcium level <4.6 mg/dL
serum chloride level <97 mEq/L
serum potassium level <3.7 mEq/L
serum magnesium level <1.7 mg/dL
serum sodium level of <136 mEq/L
serum phosphate level <2.5 mg/dL.
hypotonic hyponatremia
serum sodium level is decreased due to dilution
hypotonic solution
has a lower concentration of dissolved solutes than does blood
deficient fluid volume
indwelling urinary catheter (IUC)
a urinary catheter that stays in the bladder for a time
intermittent catheterization
used for the temporary relief of urinary retention
interstitial fluid
fluid outside of blood vessels and between the cells
intracellular fluid (ICF)
found inside cells; comprise protein, water, electrolytes, and solutes
intravascular fluid
fluid in the vascular system
isotonic solution
has a similar concentration of dissolved particles as blood
mixed urinary incontinence
two or more types of urinary incontinence that occur in the same individual
oncotic pressure
pressure inside the vascular compartment created by protein content of the blood (in the form of albumin) that holds water inside the blood vessels
orthostatic vital signs (also known as postural vital signs)
assessing a patient’s blood pressure when the patient is lying supine and comparing it to the patient’s blood pressure when either sitting upright or standing upright
a measure of the concentration of dissolved solutes in the blood
water movement through a semipermeable membrane, from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater solute concentration, in an attempt to equalize the solute concentrations on either side of the membrane
overflow incontinence
when bladder contraction fails to fully empty the bladder and urine leaks due to the high pressure from urine retention
peritoneal dialysis
uses the capillaries in the peritoneal cavity to exchange waste products
post-void residual (PVD)
determined by assessing the amount of urine that remains in the bladder immediately after the patient attempts to empty their bladder
skin turgor
the elasticity of the skin assessed by pinching the skin into a tent shape and assessing how quickly the skin returns to its normal position
soluble particle
stress incontinence
urine leakage during times of increased intrabdominal pressure
third spacing
type of hypovolemia in which total body fluid may be adequate or even excessive, but fluid has moved out of the intravascular space and into the interstitial space
the osmotic gradient between two solutions
transcellular fluid
fluid in cerebrospinal, synovial, and intrapleural areas, for example, and the gastrointestinal system
urge incontinence
an overactive bladder that contracts and causes urine leakage when the bladder is not full
urinary incontinence (UI)
unintentional and uncontrollable urine leakage
urine specific gravity
a urine test that commonly measures hydration status by measuring the concentration of particles in urine

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