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advanced cardiac life support (ACLS)
enhanced training and skills beyond basic life support (BLS), primarily involving the addition of resuscitation and cardiac support medications
the force the ventricles must generate to pump blood against the resistance in the vessels
stiffening of the arterial walls
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
the collapse of alveoli in the lungs, resulting in limited air movement and decreased gas exchange
buildup of plaque deposits within the artery walls
automated external defibrillator (AED)
an easy-to-use portable device available in many settings that can analyze a cardiac rhythm and defibrillate, if appropriate, in order to reestablish an effective cardiac rhythm
the ability of cells to initiate spontaneous action potential
a chronic condition where airways are dilated and the lung walls are thickened due to inflammation and infection
CO2 monitor
heart muscle cells
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
combination of rescue breathing and chest compressions
cardiopulmonary system
combination of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems
use of low-dose electricity to convert the cardiac electrical system from a dysrhythmia (e.g., A-fib) to normal sinus rhythm
the ridge of cartilage at the base of the trachea that separates the openings of the left and right primary bronchi
multiple medical diagnoses
the ability of the lungs to accommodate deep and shallow breaths and maintain elastic recoil
pumping action of the heart
a popping or crackling sensation when the skin is palpated; it is a sign of air trapped under the subcutaneous tissues
a bluish or dusky discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by hypoxia
a rhythm abnormality
ejection fraction (EF)
the percentage of blood within the ventricle that is expelled during a single systolic contraction
the visual interpretation of the electrical impulses involved in the cardiac cycle
a flexible piece of cartilage that covers the opening of the trachea during swallowing to prevent ingested material from entering the trachea
part of the gastrointestinal tract: tubular structure adjacent to trachea which transports food and fluid boluses from the mouth to stomach
the movement of air out of the lungs
false vocal cords
mucosal tissue located within the glottis; also known as vestibular folds
abnormal scar tissue
gas exchange
the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide; takes place at the alveolar-capillary bed
the opening between vocal folds; includes true vocal cords and the opening between them
an elevated CO2
rapid, deep breathing
decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the blood (PaO2)
a reduced level of tissue oxygenation
the movement of air into the lungs
intravascular volume
the amount of fluid within the blood vessels
a condition in which oxygen-rich blood flow is restricted or reduced in a part of the body
isoelectric line
the flat horizontal line on ECG paper, reflecting no electrical voltage (positive or negative)
lower portion of the throat, located behind the larynx
tubular airway structure at the superior part of the trachea that connects the pharynx to the trachea and helps regulate the volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs; contains the vocal cords
the space within the thoracic cavity, medially between the lungs
metabolic syndrome
a cluster of diseases (including hypertension, high blood sugar levels, a large waistline or apple shape, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol) that occur together, increasing a person’s chances of developing heart disease
nasal turbinates
folded mucosal tissues offering protection, warmth, and humidity to the nasal cavity; also known as conchae
superior part of pharynx, connecting nose and trachea
middle portion of pharynx, including tonsils and base of tongue, connecting to trachea
vascular circulation powered by the pumping action of the heart that delivers oxygen and other nutrients to body tissues
muscular tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the voice box (larynx) and the esophagus (food pipe); also known as the throat
postural drainage
use of gravity/positioning to enhance drainage of respiratory secretions
the stretch on the ventricles prior to contraction
pulse oximeter
instrument that measures the oxygen saturation of the blood
a general term for breathing and ventilation; composed of inhalation and exhalation
respiratory ventilation
the act of breathing; associated with oxygenation
rhythm strip
a tracing of the electrical cycles as seen from a selected lead, usually representing six seconds
cavities located bilaterally in various areas of the skull; identified by the nearby bones
pulmonary function test measuring the amount and speed of air movement on inhalation and exhalation
stroke volume
the volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each systolic cardiac contraction
subcutaneous emphysema
air trapped in the subcutaneous tissue
a phospholipid compound that reduces surface tension of alveoli, thereby preventing alveolar collapse (atelectasis)
heart rate faster than 100 beats per minute
a respiratory rate that exceeds 20 breaths per minute
tidal volume
length and depth of breaths
the lowest structure of the upper airway, adjacent to the esophagus, that connects the lung bronchi and the larynx and provides a route for air to enter and exit the lungs; also known as the windpipe
true vocal cords
structures within the glottis with muscular attachments to the thyroid and laryngeal cartilage; movement at the inner aspects produces sound production mechanism
promotes the unidirectional flow of blood toward the heart and prevents backflow in a vein
a blood vessel that returns blood to the heart
venous reserve
percentage of venous blood located in venous networks within the liver, bone marrow, and integument
the movement of air in and out of the lungs

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