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albumin
the most abundant protein circulating in the blood, with many functions within the body; used as a marker for protein status
body image
perception a person has about their physical body, including any feelings associated with that perception
body mass index (BMI)
a value that is calculated from an individual’s height and weight to provide as measurement relative to the standards for ideal body weight
calorie
a unit measure of energy
carbohydrate
macronutrient used to fuel the immediate energy needs of the body
cellular respiration
the breakdown of energy-rich nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) to provide ATP, which fuels cellular functions within the body
dehydration
a fluid volume deficit that occurs with inadequate water intake or excessive water loss or both
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
scientifically developed values for essential nutrients and other food components
enteral nutrition
nutrition that is directly administered into the stomach
esophageal duodenostomy (EGD)
an invasive procedure performed under anesthesia in which an endoscopic tube is advanced through the pharynx, esophagus, and gastric pouch to check for anomalies such as esophageal strictures and peptic ulcers
fat
large, complex molecule made up of fatty acids and glycerol
food desert
a geographical area where fresh produce and foodstuffs are either too expensive or unavailable
food insecurity
the state of having limited access to adequate food
ideal body weight (IBW)
weight at which a person maintains optimal health benefits
macronutrient
nutrient consumed in large quantities to meet the body’s energy needs
malnutrition
an imbalance between the nutrients consumed and nutrients needed; includes both undernutrition and overnutrition and involves both macronutrients and micronutrients
metabolism
the process by which substances are chemically broken down to meet the body’s nutrient and energy needs
micronutrient
nutrient found in small quantities within the body but still necessary for physiological functions
mineral
essential to physiological processing; some are macronutrients, and some are micronutrients
modified barium swallow study (MBSS)
a procedure for viewing the anatomical and swallowing physiology of a bolus of food under video fluoroscopy
parenteral nutrition (PN)
nutrition delivered intravenously by a central line
protein
macronutrient made up of amino acids
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
guidelines developed by the U.S. government for consuming the nutrients that make up a healthy diet
Reference Daily Intake (RDI)
average daily intake of a population
vitamin
essential micronutrient vital to biochemical regulation within the human body
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