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acute pain
pain that is short in duration and caused by an acute event
adjuvant analgesic
medication that is not classified as an analgesic but has been found to have an analgesic effect with opioids
affective response
the emotional interpretation of pain, such as how uncomfortable the pain is
the extreme fear of pain
medication used to relieve pain
basal rate
the continuous rate of the medication that maintains effective pain management
a technique that uses visual or auditory feedback to control bodily functions such as heart rate and breathing patterns
breakthrough pain
pain that persists along with chronic pain even with pain interventions
picturing the worst possible outcome for a situation
chronic pain
pain that persists for longer than three months
cutaneous pain
pain that is perceived from the skin and caused by heat, cold, or mechanical or chemical stimuli
a method that moves patients’ attention away from painful stimuli
extreme physical or mental suffering such as pain, anxiety, or sadness
etiology of pain
the specific cause of pain
fight-or-flight response
the automatic response from the sympathetic nervous system to a perceived stressful or dangerous situation, which triggers the body to either run away from or fight the perceived threat
first line therapy
medical treatment that is recommended as the best option for the initial treatment of a disease or medical condition
guided imagery
a relaxation technique that uses images or scenes to invoke positive and relaxing feelings
idiopathic pain
chronic pain from an unknown origin
a form of therapeutic touch where a professional uses touch and pressure to loosen tight muscles and tendons
McCaffrey Initial Pain Assessment Tool
a pain assessment tool that uses visual aids and questions including elements of the PQRSTU mnemonic to provide a comprehensive pain assessment
modification of pain
a change by the brain in the intensity of the pain signal based on the situation that originated the pain signal
neuropathic pain
pain caused by neurological damage or dysfunction
a chemical that carries messages between neurons to communicate throughout the body
the process by which painful stimuli are detected by nociceptors and send the pain signals from the peripheral nervous system to the brain
nociceptive pain
pain that originates in the peripheral nervous system from stimulation by heat, cold, or mechanical or chemical stimuli
a type of sensory receptor in the peripheral nervous system that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the central nervous system
nonopioid analgesic
medication, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), used for acute and chronic pain relief
nonpharmacological therapy
interventions that reduce pain without using medication
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
medication that provides mild to moderate pain relief while also reducing fever and inflammation by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins
opioid analgesic
powerful prescription medication that helps reduce pain by blocking pain signals
parasympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that opposes the sympathetic nervous system and regulates automatic bodily functions in times of rest and relaxation
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
a form of pain medication administration that allows hospitalized patients with severe pain to safely self-administer opioid medications using a programmed pump
pharmacological therapy
the use of medication to treat a disease, illness, or medical condition
physical dependence
a condition in which a patient experiences physical symptoms of withdrawal when stopping a medication
physical therapy
the use of exercise and movement to improve strength and flexibility
physiologic response
the body’s involuntary response to a stimulus such as inflammation or changes in heart rate and blood pressure
physiological factor
a physical factor that relates to a person’s perception of pain
placebo effect
an improvement in a condition, such as the lessening of pain, that occurs due to the patient believing a treatment will be effective
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a psychiatric disorder in which a person experiences lingering effects triggered by a past traumatic event
psychosocial factor
a social factor that relates to a person’s perception of pain
referred pain
pain perceived at a location other than the site originating the painful stimulus
somatic pain
pain that originates in ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels, and muscles
a built-up resistance of the body to a medication
transduction of pain
the starting point of the pain process when stimuli activate nociceptors to alert the brain
transmission of pain
the second step of the pain process when the pain signal is sent from the peripheral to the central nervous system
visceral pain
pain that is activated when internal organs such as the stomach and kidneys are damaged
the use of sounds, noises, and words to express pain
Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale
a visual pain assessment tool using drawings of different faces exhibiting increasing levels of pain

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