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“butterfly” cannula
needle with flexible plastic wings on either side of the needle hub that serve to maneuver the needle during the venipuncture procedure; are manufactured with a short tubing attached to the cannula
air embolus
occurs when air or gas makes its way into the vascular system
antimicrobial filter
port protectors containing alcohol that disinfect and protect the IV access point
bacterial reaction
occurs when blood or blood products are contaminated with bacteria
blood typing
identifies blood type and Rh factor
a small hollow tube placed in the vein
catheter-associated thrombus
an inflammatory response to an IV catheter that causes a blood clot to form and block one or more veins
central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)
hospital-acquired infection caused by microorganisms being introduced into the bloodstream through a central line
central venous (CV) access
also known as a central line, an IV inserted in or near a large vein that goes into the superior vena cava
central venous catheter (CVC)
IV inserted in or near a large vein that goes into the superior vena cava
circulatory overload
occurs when fluids are administered faster than the circulatory system can accommodate
combi stopper
closing cone with Luer lock–fitting stoppers designed to seal the access points on IV devices to maintain sterility and prevent contamination
continuous infusion
constant delivery of medication or IV fluid over an extended period of time, ranging from hours to days
checks for harmful interactions between the donor’s and recipient’s blood
cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor (cryo)
portion of plasma that is rich in clotting factors
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body
extension tubing
a length of tubing with a connector that can be added to the primary IV tubing to extend the reach of the IV line
a condition that occurs when vesicant (an irritating solution or medication) is administered and inadvertently
febrile reaction
occurs when there is a hypersensitivity to the donor’s white cells, platelets, or plasma proteins
fluid overload
occurs when there is increased fluid retained in the intravascular compartment
prefilled syringe that contains a small amount of normal saline or heparin used to keep IV site open and unobstructed
type of white blood cell that protects against infection by destroying invading bacteria and viruses
hemolytic transfusion reaction
occurs when incompatible blood products are administered
contains a higher concentration of particles than plasma, so osmotic movement pulls the water from the cellular space into the intravascular space, causing the cell to shrink
contains a lower concentration of particles than plasma, so osmotic movement pulls the water from the intravascular space into the cellular space, causing the cell to swell
implanted port
central line that is surgically placed under the skin and accessed by needle when needed
infusion pump
medical device used to deliver IV fluids in controlled amounts
intermittent infusion
delivery of medication or fluid via an IV at a specific interval or scheduled time
contains a similar concentration of particles as plasma, so no osmotic movement occurs, and the fluid stays within the intravascular space
IV immunoglobulin (IVIG)
human antibodies that are administered to help fight certain infections
IV push
manually injecting medications into the IV line
tube connected to the IV catheter and located out of the skin to administer medications
ten, fifteen, or twenty drops per milliliter
midline catheter
used for long-term IV therapy; catheter is longer than a PIVC but does not extend to the vena cava
tissue death
nontunneled percutaneous central venous catheter
type of central line commonly used for emergent situations
packed red blood cells
increase hemoglobin, iron, and oxygen levels within the body
parenteral nutrition (PN)
nutrition delivered intravenously by a central line
open and unobstructed line
peripheral intravenous (PIV) line
IV inserted into a peripheral vein, usually in the hand, arm, or forearm
peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC)
most common type of IV, placed in a peripheral vein
peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN)
diluted nutritional supplements that deliver nutrients and calories on a short-term basis
peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)
type of central line inserted peripherally
inflammation of a vein
the dominant component of blood that contains water, proteins, electrolytes, lipids, and glucose
small, colorless cell fragment that sticks to the lining of a blood vessel to stop bleeding
red blood cell
carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body and takes carbon dioxide back to the lungs
Rh factor
a certain protein, rhesus factor, present in some red blood cells
secondary set
IV tubing used to intermittently infuse secondary medications
shielded catheter
IV catheter with a retractable needle
short-term dosing
a prescribed specific medication for a relatively brief duration
superficial vein thrombosis (SVT)
a blood clot that involves superficial veins of the arms or legs
three-way stopcock
small, plastic, Y-shaped valve with three regulating ports
total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
total replacement of dietary needs over a long-term basis
tunneled central venous catheter
central line that is tunneled under the skin and then brought out through a separate incision site
vascular access device
thin, flexible catheter that provides access to blood vessels without the need for repeated needlesticks
vein finder
device that uses infrared radiation reflection technology to create a map of the veins
drug that can cause blisters or tissue necrosis if leaked into the surrounding tissue
white blood cell
helps the body to fight against disease

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