Chemistry

# Key Terms

ChemistryKey Terms
acid anhydride
compound that reacts with water to form an acid or acidic solution
alkaline earth metal
any of the metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) occupying group 2 of the periodic table; they are reactive, divalent metals that form basic oxides
allotropes
two or more forms of the same element, in the same physical state, with different chemical structures
amorphous
solid material such as a glass that does not have a regular repeating component to its three-dimensional structure; a solid but not a crystal
base anhydride
metal oxide that behaves as a base towards acids
bicarbonate anion
salt of the hydrogen carbonate ion, $HCO3−HCO3−$
bismuth
heaviest member of group 15; a less reactive metal than other representative metals
borate
compound containing boron-oxygen bonds, typically with clusters or chains as a part of the chemical structure
carbonate
salt of the anion $CO32−;CO32−;$ often formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide with bases
chemical reduction
method of preparing a representative metal using a reducing agent
chlor-alkali process
electrolysis process for the synthesis of chlorine and sodium hydroxide
disproportionation reaction
chemical reaction where a single reactant is simultaneously reduced and oxidized; it is both the reducing agent and the oxidizing agent
Downs cell
electrochemical cell used for the commercial preparation of metallic sodium (and chlorine) from molten sodium chloride
Frasch process
important in the mining of free sulfur from enormous underground deposits
Haber process
main industrial process used to produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen; involves the use of an iron catalyst and elevated temperatures and pressures
halide
compound containing an anion of a group 17 element in the 1− oxidation state (fluoride, F; chloride, Cl; bromide, Br; and iodide, I)
Hall–Héroult cell
electrolysis apparatus used to isolate pure aluminum metal from a solution of alumina in molten cryolite
hydrogen carbonate
salt of carbonic acid, H2CO3 (containing the anion $HCO3−)HCO3−)$ in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced; an acid carbonate; also known as bicarbonate ion
hydrogen halide
binary compound formed between hydrogen and the halogens: HF, HCl, HBr, and HI
hydrogen sulfate
$HSO4−HSO4−$ ion
hydrogen sulfite
$HSO3−HSO3−$ ion
hydrogenation
addition of hydrogen (H2) to reduce a compound
hydroxide
compound of a metal with the hydroxide ion OH or the group −OH
interhalogen
compound formed from two or more different halogens
metal (representative)
atoms of the metallic elements of groups 1, 2, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, which form ionic compounds by losing electrons from their outer s or p orbitals
metalloid
element that has properties that are between those of metals and nonmetals; these elements are typically semiconductors
nitrate
$NO3−NO3−$ ion; salt of nitric acid
nitrogen fixation
formation of nitrogen compounds from molecular nitrogen
Ostwald process
industrial process used to convert ammonia into nitric acid
oxide
binary compound of oxygen with another element or group, typically containing O2− ions or the group –O– or =O
ozone
allotrope of oxygen; O3
passivation
metals with a protective nonreactive film of oxide or other compound that creates a barrier for chemical reactions; physical or chemical removal of the passivating film allows the metals to demonstrate their expected chemical reactivity
peroxide
molecule containing two oxygen atoms bonded together or as the anion, $O22−O22−$
photosynthesis
process whereby light energy promotes the reaction of water and carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates and oxygen; this allows photosynthetic organisms to store energy
Pidgeon process
chemical reduction process used to produce magnesium through the thermal reaction of magnesium oxide with silicon
polymorph
variation in crystalline structure that results in different physical properties for the resulting compound
representative element
element where the s and p orbitals are filling
representative metal
metal among the representative elements
silicate
compound containing silicon-oxygen bonds, with silicate tetrahedra connected in rings, sheets, or three-dimensional networks, depending on the other elements involved in the formation of the compounds
sulfate
$SO42−SO42−$ ion
sulfite
$SO32−SO32−$ ion
superoxide
oxide containing the anion $O2−O2−$