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Chemistry: Atoms First

Key Terms

Chemistry: Atoms FirstKey Terms

Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Multiple Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Standard Reduction Potentials
    5. 16.4 The Nernst Equation
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
alpha (α) decay
loss of an alpha particle during radioactive decay
alpha particle
or 24He24He or 24α)24α) high-energy helium nucleus; a helium atom that has lost two electrons and contains two protons and two neutrons
particles with the same mass but opposite properties (such as charge) of ordinary particles
band of stability
(also, belt of stability, zone of stability, or valley of stability) region of graph of number of protons versus number of neutrons containing stable (nonradioactive) nuclides
becquerel (Bq)
SI unit for rate of radioactive decay; 1 Bq = 1 disintegration/s
beta (β) decay
breakdown of a neutron into a proton, which remains in the nucleus, and an electron, which is emitted as a beta particle
beta particle
or −10e−10e or −10β)−10β) high-energy electron
binding energy per nucleon
total binding energy for the nucleus divided by the number of nucleons in the nucleus
chain reaction
repeated fission caused when the neutrons released in fission bombard other atoms
similar to internal radiation therapy, but chemical rather than radioactive substances are introduced into the body to kill cancer cells
containment system
(also, shield) a three-part structure of materials that protects the exterior of a nuclear fission reactor and operating personnel from the high temperatures, pressures, and radiation levels inside the reactor
control rod
material inserted into the fuel assembly that absorbs neutrons and can be raised or lowered to adjust the rate of a fission reaction
critical mass
amount of fissionable material that will support a self-sustaining (nuclear fission) chain reaction
curie (Ci)
larger unit for rate of radioactive decay frequently used in medicine; 1 Ci = 3.7 ×× 1010 disintegrations/s
daughter nuclide
nuclide produced by the radioactive decay of another nuclide; may be stable or may decay further
electron capture
combination of a core electron with a proton to yield a neutron within the nucleus
electron volt (eV)
measurement unit of nuclear binding energies, with 1 eV equaling the amount energy due to the moving an electron across an electric potential difference of 1 volt
external beam radiation therapy
radiation delivered by a machine outside the body
fissile (or fissionable)
when a material is capable of sustaining a nuclear fission reaction
splitting of a heavier nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei, usually accompanied by the conversion of mass into large amounts of energy
combination of very light nuclei into heavier nuclei, accompanied by the conversion of mass into large amounts of energy
fusion reactor
nuclear reactor in which fusion reactions of light nuclei are controlled
gamma (γ) emission
decay of an excited-state nuclide accompanied by emission of a gamma ray
gamma ray
or 00γ)00γ) short wavelength, high-energy electromagnetic radiation that exhibits wave-particle duality
Geiger counter
instrument that detects and measures radiation via the ionization produced in a Geiger-Müller tube
gray (Gy)
SI unit for measuring radiation dose; 1 Gy = 1 J absorbed/kg tissue
half-life (t1/2)
time required for half of the atoms in a radioactive sample to decay
internal radiation therapy
(also, brachytherapy) radiation from a radioactive substance introduced into the body to kill cancer cells
ionizing radiation
radiation that can cause a molecule to lose an electron and form an ion
magic number
nuclei with specific numbers of nucleons that are within the band of stability
mass defect
difference between the mass of an atom and the summed mass of its constituent subatomic particles (or the mass “lost” when nucleons are brought together to form a nucleus)
mass-energy equivalence equation
Albert Einstein’s relationship showing that mass and energy are equivalent
millicurie (mCi)
larger unit for rate of radioactive decay frequently used in medicine; 1 Ci = 3.7 ×× 1010 disintegrations/s
nonionizing radiation
radiation that speeds up the movement of atoms and molecules; it is equivalent to heating a sample, but is not energetic enough to cause the ionization of molecules
nuclear binding energy
energy lost when an atom’s nucleons are bound together (or the energy needed to break a nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons)
nuclear chemistry
study of the structure of atomic nuclei and processes that change nuclear structure
nuclear fuel
fissionable isotope present in sufficient quantities to provide a self-sustaining chain reaction in a nuclear reactor
nuclear moderator
substance that slows neutrons to a speed low enough to cause fission
nuclear reaction
change to a nucleus resulting in changes in the atomic number, mass number, or energy state
nuclear reactor
environment that produces energy via nuclear fission in which the chain reaction is controlled and sustained without explosion
nuclear transmutation
conversion of one nuclide into another nuclide
collective term for protons and neutrons in a nucleus
nucleus of a particular isotope
parent nuclide
unstable nuclide that changes spontaneously into another (daughter) nuclide
particle accelerator
device that uses electric and magnetic fields to increase the kinetic energy of nuclei used in transmutation reactions
positron (+10β(+10β or +10e)+10e)
antiparticle to the electron; it has identical properties to an electron, except for having the opposite (positive) charge
positron emission
(also, β+ decay) conversion of a proton into a neutron, which remains in the nucleus, and a positron, which is emitted
radiation absorbed dose (rad)
SI unit for measuring radiation dose, frequently used in medical applications; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy
radiation dosimeter
device that measures ionizing radiation and is used to determine personal radiation exposure
radiation therapy
use of high-energy radiation to damage the DNA of cancer cells, which kills them or keeps them from dividing
radioactive decay
spontaneous decay of an unstable nuclide into another nuclide
radioactive decay series
chains of successive disintegrations (radioactive decays) that ultimately lead to a stable end-product
radioactive tracer
(also, radioactive label) radioisotope used to track or follow a substance by monitoring its radioactive emissions
phenomenon exhibited by an unstable nucleon that spontaneously undergoes change into a nucleon that is more stable; an unstable nucleon is said to be radioactive
radiocarbon dating
highly accurate means of dating objects 30,000–50,000 years old that were derived from once-living matter; achieved by calculating the ratio of 614C : 612C 614C : 612C in the object vs. the ratio of 614C : 612C 614C : 612C in the present-day atmosphere
isotope that is unstable and undergoes conversion into a different, more stable isotope
radiometric dating
use of radioisotopes and their properties to date the formation of objects such as archeological artifacts, formerly living organisms, or geological formations
reactor coolant
assembly used to carry the heat produced by fission in a reactor to an external boiler and turbine where it is transformed into electricity
relative biological effectiveness (RBE)
measure of the relative damage done by radiation
roentgen equivalent man (rem)
unit for radiation damage, frequently used in medicine; 100 rem = 1 Sv
scintillation counter
instrument that uses a scintillator—a material that emits light when excited by ionizing radiation—to detect and measure radiation
sievert (Sv)
SI unit measuring tissue damage caused by radiation; takes into account energy and biological effects of radiation
strong nuclear force
force of attraction between nucleons that holds a nucleus together
subcritical mass
amount of fissionable material that cannot sustain a chain reaction; less than a critical mass
supercritical mass
amount of material in which there is an increasing rate of fission
transmutation reaction
bombardment of one type of nuclei with other nuclei or neutrons
transuranium element
element with an atomic number greater than 92; these elements do not occur in nature
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