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Chemistry: Atoms First 2e

C | Units and Conversion Factors

Chemistry: Atoms First 2eC | Units and Conversion Factors

Units of Length
meter (m)= 39.37 inches (in.)
= 1.094 yards (yd)
centimeter (cm)= 0.01 m (exact, definition)
millimeter (mm)= 0.001 m (exact, definition)
kilometer (km)= 1000 m (exact, definition)
angstrom (Å)= 10–8 cm (exact, definition)
= 10–10 m (exact, definition)
yard (yd)= 0.9144 m
inch (in.)= 2.54 cm (exact, definition)
mile (US)= 1.60934 km
Table C1
Units of Volume
liter (L)= 0.001 m3 (exact, definition)
= 1000 cm3 (exact, definition)
= 1.057 (US) quarts
milliliter (mL)= 0.001 L (exact, definition)
= 1 cm3 (exact, definition)
microliter (μL)(μL)= 10–6 L (exact, definition)
= 10–3 cm3 (exact, definition)
liquid quart (US)= 32 (US) liquid ounces (exact, definition)
= 0.25 (US) gallon (exact, definition)
= 0.9463 L
dry quart= 1.1012 L
cubic foot (US)= 28.316 L
Table C2
Units of Mass
gram (g) = 0.001 kg (exact, definition)
milligram (mg) = 0.001 g (exact, definition)
kilogram (kg) = 1000 g (exact, definition)
= 2.205 lb1
ton (metric) =1000 kg (exact, definition)
= 2204.62 lb
ounce (oz) = 28.35 g
pound (lb) = 0.4535924 kg
ton (short) =2000 lb (exact, definition)
= 907.185 kg
ton (long) = 2240 lb (exact, definition)
= 1.016 metric ton
Table C3
Units of Energy
4.184 joule (J) = 1 thermochemical calorie (cal)
1 thermochemical calorie (cal) = 4.184 ×× 107  erg
erg = 10–7 J (exact, definition)
electron-volt (eV) = 1.60218 ×× 10−19 J = 23.061 kcal mol−1
liter∙atmosphere = 24.217 cal = 101.325 J (exact, definition)
nutritional calorie (Cal) = 1000 cal (exact, definition) = 4184 J
British thermal unit (BTU) = 1054.804 J2
Table C4
Units of Pressure
torr = 1 mm Hg (exact, definition)
pascal (Pa) = N m–2 (exact, definition)
= kg m–1 s–2 (exact, definition)
atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg (exact, definition)
= 760 torr (exact, definition)
= 101,325 N m–2 (exact, definition)
= 101,325 Pa (exact, definition)
bar = 105 Pa (exact, definition)
= 105 kg m–1 s–2 (exact, definition)
Table C5


  • 1Strictly speaking, the ounce and pound are units of weight, W (a force equal to the product of mass and gravitational acceleration, W = mg). The conversion relations in this table are commonly used to equate masses and weight assuming a nominal value for g at the surface of the earth.
  • 2BTU is the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Therefore, the exact relationship of BTU to joules and other energy units depends on the temperature at which BTU is measured. 59 °F (15 °C) is the most widely used reference temperature for BTU definition in the United States. At this temperature, the conversion factor is the one provided in this table.
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