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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 16.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index

6.1 Formula Mass

1.

What is the total mass (amu) of carbon in each of the following molecules?

(a) CH4

(b) CHCl3

(c) C12H10O6

(d) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

2.

What is the total mass of hydrogen in each of the molecules?

(a) CH4

(b) CHCl3

(c) C12H10O6

(d) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

3.

Calculate the molecular or formula mass of each of the following:

(a) P4

(b) H2O

(c) Ca(NO3)2

(d) CH3CO2H (acetic acid)

(e) C12H22O11 (sucrose, cane sugar)

4.

Determine the molecular mass of the following compounds:

(a)

A structure is shown. A C atom is bonded to two C l atoms and forms a double bond with one O atom.

(b)

A structure is shown. Two C atoms form a triple bond with each other. Each C atom also forms a single bond with on H atom.

(c)

A structure is shown. Two C atoms form double bonds with each other. Each C atom also forms a single bond with an H atom and a B r atom.

(d)

A structure is shown. An S atom forms double bonds with two O atoms. The S atom also forms a single bond with an O atom which forms a single bond with an H atom. The S atom also forms a single bond with another O atom which forms a single bond with another H atom.
5.

Determine the molecular mass of the following compounds:

(a)

A structure is shown. Two C atoms form double bonds with each other. The C atom on the left forms a single bond with two H atoms each. The C atom on the right forms a single bond with an H atom and with a C H subscript 2 C H subscript 3 group.

(b)

A structure is shown. There is a C atom which forms single bonds with three H atoms each. This C atom is bonded to another C atom. This second C atom forms a triple bond with another C atom which forms a single bond with a fourth C atom. The fourth C atom forms single bonds with three H atoms each.

(c)

A structure is shown. An S i atom forms a single bond with a C l atom, a single bond with a C l atom, a single bond with an H atom, and a single bond with another S i atom. The second S i atom froms a single bond with a C l atom, a single bond with a C l atom, and a single bond with an H atom.

(d)

A structure is shown. A P atom forms a double bond with an O atom. It also forms a single bond with an O atom which forms a single bond with an H atom. It also forms a single bond with another O atom which forms a single bond with an H atom. It also forms a single bond with another O atom which forms a single bond with an H atom.
6.

Which molecule has a molecular mass of 28.05 amu?

(a)

A structure is shown. A C atom forms a triple bond with another C atom. Each C atom also forms a single bond with an H atom.

(b)

A structure is shown. Two C atoms form a double bond with each other. Each C atom also forms a single bond with two H atoms.

(c)

A structure is shown. A C atom forms a single bond with three H atoms each and with another C atom. The second C atom also forms a single bond with three H atoms each.

6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas

7.

What information is needed to determine the molecular formula of a compound from the empirical formula?

8.

Calculate the following to four significant figures:

(a) the percent composition of ammonia, NH3

(b) the percent composition of photographic fixer solution “hypo,” Na2S2O3

(c) the percent of calcium ion in Ca3(PO4)2

9.

Determine the following to four significant figures:

(a) the percent composition of hydrazoic acid, HN3

(b) the percent composition of TNT, C6H2(CH3)(NO2)3

(c) the percent of SO42– in Al2(SO4)3

10.

Determine the percent ammonia, NH3, in Co(NH3)6Cl3, to three significant figures.

11.

Determine the percent water in CuSO4∙5H2O to three significant figures.

12.

Determine the empirical formulas for compounds with the following percent compositions:

(a) 15.8% carbon and 84.2% sulfur

(b) 40.0% carbon, 6.7% hydrogen, and 53.3% oxygen

13.

Determine the empirical formulas for compounds with the following percent compositions:

(a) 43.6% phosphorus and 56.4% oxygen

(b) 28.7% K, 1.5% H, 22.8% P, and 47.0% O

14.

A compound of carbon and hydrogen contains 92.3% C and has a molar mass of 78.1 g/mol. What is its molecular formula?

15.

Dichloroethane, a compound that is often used for dry cleaning, contains carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine. It has a molar mass of 99 g/mol. Analysis of a sample shows that it contains 24.3% carbon and 4.1% hydrogen. What is its molecular formula?

16.

Determine the empirical and molecular formula for chrysotile asbestos. Chrysotile has the following percent composition: 28.03% Mg, 21.60% Si, 1.16% H, and 49.21% O. The molar mass for chrysotile is 520.8 g/mol.

17.

Polymers are large molecules composed of simple units repeated many times. Thus, they often have relatively simple empirical formulas. Calculate the empirical formulas of the following polymers:

(a) Lucite (Plexiglas); 59.9% C, 8.06% H, 32.0% O

(b) Saran; 24.8% C, 2.0% H, 73.1% Cl

(c) polyethylene; 86% C, 14% H

(d) polystyrene; 92.3% C, 7.7% H

(e) Orlon; 67.9% C, 5.70% H, 26.4% N

18.

A major textile dye manufacturer developed a new yellow dye. The dye has a percent composition of 75.95% C, 17.72% N, and 6.33% H by mass with a molar mass of about 240 g/mol. Determine the molecular formula of the dye.

6.3 Molarity

19.

Explain what changes and what stays the same when 1.00 L of a solution of NaCl is diluted to 1.80 L.

20.

What information is needed to calculate the molarity of a sulfuric acid solution?

21.

A 200-mL sample and a 400-mL sample of a solution of salt have the same molarity. In what ways are the two samples identical? In what ways are these two samples different?

22.

Determine the molarity for each of the following solutions:

(a) 0.444 mol of CoCl2 in 0.654 L of solution

(b) 98.0 g of phosphoric acid, H3PO4, in 1.00 L of solution

(c) 0.2074 g of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, in 40.00 mL of solution

(d) 10.5 kg of Na2SO4·10H2O in 18.60 L of solution

(e) 7.0 ×× 10−3 mol of I2 in 100.0 mL of solution

(f) 1.8 ×× 104 mg of HCl in 0.075 L of solution

23.

Determine the molarity of each of the following solutions:

(a) 1.457 mol KCl in 1.500 L of solution

(b) 0.515 g of H2SO4 in 1.00 L of solution

(c) 20.54 g of Al(NO3)3 in 1575 mL of solution

(d) 2.76 kg of CuSO4·5H2O in 1.45 L of solution

(e) 0.005653 mol of Br2 in 10.00 mL of solution

(f) 0.000889 g of glycine, C2H5NO2, in 1.05 mL of solution

24.

Consider this question: What is the mass of the solute in 0.500 L of 0.30 M glucose, C6H12O6, used for intravenous injection?

(a) Outline the steps necessary to answer the question.

(b) Answer the question.

25.

Consider this question: What is the mass of solute in 200.0 L of a 1.556-M solution of KBr?

(a) Outline the steps necessary to answer the question.

(b) Answer the question.

26.

Calculate the number of moles and the mass of the solute in each of the following solutions:

(a) 2.00 L of 18.5 M H2SO4, concentrated sulfuric acid

(b) 100.0 mL of 3.8 ×× 10−5 M NaCN, the minimum lethal concentration of sodium cyanide in blood serum

(c) 5.50 L of 13.3 M H2CO, the formaldehyde used to “fix” tissue samples

(d) 325 mL of 1.8 ×× 10−6 M FeSO4, the minimum concentration of iron sulfate detectable by taste in drinking water

27.

Calculate the number of moles and the mass of the solute in each of the following solutions:

(a) 325 mL of 8.23 ×× 10−5 M KI, a source of iodine in the diet

(b) 75.0 mL of 2.2 ×× 10−5 M H2SO4, a sample of acid rain

(c) 0.2500 L of 0.1135 M K2CrO4, an analytical reagent used in iron assays

(d) 10.5 L of 3.716 M (NH4)2SO4, a liquid fertilizer

28.

Consider this question: What is the molarity of KMnO4 in a solution of 0.0908 g of KMnO4 in 0.500 L of solution?

(a) Outline the steps necessary to answer the question.

(b) Answer the question.

29.

Consider this question: What is the molarity of HCl if 35.23 mL of a solution of HCl contain 0.3366 g of HCl?

(a) Outline the steps necessary to answer the question.

(b) Answer the question.

30.

Calculate the molarity of each of the following solutions:

(a) 0.195 g of cholesterol, C27H46O, in 0.100 L of serum, the average concentration of cholesterol in human serum

(b) 4.25 g of NH3 in 0.500 L of solution, the concentration of NH3 in household ammonia

(c) 1.49 kg of isopropyl alcohol, C3H7OH, in 2.50 L of solution, the concentration of isopropyl alcohol in rubbing alcohol

(d) 0.029 g of I2 in 0.100 L of solution, the solubility of I2 in water at 20 °C

31.

Calculate the molarity of each of the following solutions:

(a) 293 g HCl in 666 mL of solution, a concentrated HCl solution

(b) 2.026 g FeCl3 in 0.1250 L of a solution used as an unknown in general chemistry laboratories

(c) 0.001 mg Cd2+ in 0.100 L, the maximum permissible concentration of cadmium in drinking water

(d) 0.0079 g C7H5SNO3 in one ounce (29.6 mL), the concentration of saccharin in a diet soft drink.

32.

There is about 1.0 g of calcium, as Ca2+, in 1.0 L of milk. What is the molarity of Ca2+ in milk?

33.

What volume of a 1.00-M Fe(NO3)3 solution can be diluted to prepare 1.00 L of a solution with a concentration of 0.250 M?

34.

If 0.1718 L of a 0.3556-M C3H7OH solution is diluted to a concentration of 0.1222 M, what is the volume of the resulting solution?

35.

If 4.12 L of a 0.850 M-H3PO4 solution is be diluted to a volume of 10.00 L, what is the concentration of the resulting solution?

36.

What volume of a 0.33-M C12H22O11 solution can be diluted to prepare 25 mL of a solution with a concentration of 0.025 M?

37.

What is the concentration of the NaCl solution that results when 0.150 L of a 0.556-M solution is allowed to evaporate until the volume is reduced to 0.105 L?

38.

What is the molarity of the diluted solution when each of the following solutions is diluted to the given final volume?

(a) 1.00 L of a 0.250-M solution of Fe(NO3)3 is diluted to a final volume of 2.00 L

(b) 0.5000 L of a 0.1222-M solution of C3H7OH is diluted to a final volume of 1.250 L

(c) 2.35 L of a 0.350-M solution of H3PO4 is diluted to a final volume of 4.00 L

(d) 22.50 mL of a 0.025-M solution of C12H22O11 is diluted to 100.0 mL

39.

What is the final concentration of the solution produced when 225.5 mL of a 0.09988-M solution of Na2CO3 is allowed to evaporate until the solution volume is reduced to 45.00 mL?

40.

A 2.00-L bottle of a solution of concentrated HCl was purchased for the general chemistry laboratory. The solution contained 868.8 g of HCl. What is the molarity of the solution?

41.

An experiment in a general chemistry laboratory calls for a 2.00-M solution of HCl. How many mL of 11.9 M HCl would be required to make 250 mL of 2.00 M HCl?

42.

What volume of a 0.20-M K2SO4 solution contains 57 g of K2SO4?

43.

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) places limits on the quantities of toxic substances that may be discharged into the sewer system. Limits have been established for a variety of substances, including hexavalent chromium, which is limited to 0.50 mg/L. If an industry is discharging hexavalent chromium as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), what is the maximum permissible molarity of that substance?

6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations

44.

Consider this question: What mass of a concentrated solution of nitric acid (68.0% HNO3 by mass) is needed to prepare 400.0 g of a 10.0% solution of HNO3 by mass?

(a) Outline the steps necessary to answer the question.

(b) Answer the question.

45.

What mass of a 4.00% NaOH solution by mass contains 15.0 g of NaOH?

46.

What mass of solid NaOH (97.0% NaOH by mass) is required to prepare 1.00 L of a 10.0% solution of NaOH by mass? The density of the 10.0% solution is 1.109 g/mL.

47.

What mass of HCl is contained in 45.0 mL of an aqueous HCl solution that has a density of 1.19 g cm–3 and contains 37.21% HCl by mass?

48.

The hardness of water (hardness count) is usually expressed in parts per million (by mass) of CaCO3, which is equivalent to milligrams of CaCO3 per liter of water. What is the molar concentration of Ca2+ ions in a water sample with a hardness count of 175 mg CaCO3/L?

49.

The level of mercury in a stream was suspected to be above the minimum considered safe (1 part per billion by weight). An analysis indicated that the concentration was 0.68 parts per billion. Assume a density of 1.0 g/mL and calculate the molarity of mercury in the stream.

50.

In Canada and the United Kingdom, devices that measure blood glucose levels provide a reading in millimoles per liter. If a measurement of 5.3 mM is observed, what is the concentration of glucose (C6H12O6) in mg/dL?

51.

A throat spray is 1.40% by mass phenol, C6H5OH, in water. If the solution has a density of 0.9956 g/mL, calculate the molarity of the solution.

52.

Copper(I) iodide (CuI) is often added to table salt as a dietary source of iodine. How many moles of CuI are contained in 1.00 lb (454 g) of table salt containing 0.0100% CuI by mass?

53.

A cough syrup contains 5.0% ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH, by mass. If the density of the solution is 0.9928 g/mL, determine the molarity of the alcohol in the cough syrup.

54.

D5W is a solution used as an intravenous fluid. It is a 5.0% by mass solution of dextrose (C6H12O6) in water. If the density of D5W is 1.029 g/mL, calculate the molarity of dextrose in the solution.

55.

Find the molarity of a 40.0% by mass aqueous solution of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, for which the density is 1.3057 g/mL.

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