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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  4. 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 3.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 3.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. 3.6 The Periodic Table
    8. 3.7 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  5. 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 4.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 4.3 Chemical Nomenclature
    5. 4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    6. 4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance
    7. 4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  6. 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 5.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  7. 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Formula Mass
    3. 6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 6.3 Molarity
    5. 6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  8. 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 7.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  9. 8 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  10. 9 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Energy Basics
    3. 9.2 Calorimetry
    4. 9.3 Enthalpy
    5. 9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Spontaneity
    3. 12.2 Entropy
    4. 12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 12.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 16.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 16.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 16.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 16.6 Corrosion
    8. 16.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  18. 17 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 17.3 Rate Laws
    5. 17.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 17.5 Collision Theory
    7. 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 17.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 20.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 20.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  22. 21 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 21.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 21.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index

18.1 Periodicity

1.

How do alkali metals differ from alkaline earth metals in atomic structure and general properties?

2.

Why does the reactivity of the alkali metals decrease from cesium to lithium?

3.

Predict the formulas for the nine compounds that may form when each species in column 1 of Exercise 18.3 reacts with each species in column 2.

1 2
Na I
Sr Se
Al O
4.

Predict the best choice in each of the following. You may wish to review the chapter on electronic structure for relevant examples.

(a) the most metallic of the elements Al, Be, and Ba

(b) the most covalent of the compounds NaCl, CaCl2, and BeCl2

(c) the lowest first ionization energy among the elements Rb, K, and Li

(d) the smallest among Al, Al+, and Al3+

(e) the largest among Cs+, Ba2+, and Xe

5.

Sodium chloride and strontium chloride are both white solids. How could you distinguish one from the other?

6.

The reaction of quicklime, CaO, with water produces slaked lime, Ca(OH)2, which is widely used in the construction industry to make mortar and plaster. The reaction of quicklime and water is highly exothermic:
CaO(s)+H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(s)ΔH=−350 kJmol−1CaO(s)+H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(s)ΔH=−350 kJmol−1

(a) What is the enthalpy of reaction per gram of quicklime that reacts?

(b) How much heat, in kilojoules, is associated with the production of 1 ton of slaked lime?

7.

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of elemental strontium with each of the following:

(a) oxygen

(b) hydrogen bromide

(c) hydrogen

(d) phosphorus

(e) water

8.

How many moles of ionic species are present in 1.0 L of a solution marked 1.0 M mercury(I) nitrate?

9.

What is the mass of fish, in kilograms, that one would have to consume to obtain a fatal dose of mercury, if the fish contains 30 parts per million of mercury by weight? (Assume that all the mercury from the fish ends up as mercury(II) chloride in the body and that a fatal dose is 0.20 g of HgCl2.) How many pounds of fish is this?

10.

The elements sodium, aluminum, and chlorine are in the same period.

(a) Which has the greatest electronegativity?

(b) Which of the atoms is smallest?

(c) Write the Lewis structure for the simplest covalent compound that can form between aluminum and chlorine.

(d) Will the oxide of each element be acidic, basic, or amphoteric?

11.

Does metallic tin react with HCl?

12.

What is tin pest, also known as tin disease?

13.

Compare the nature of the bonds in PbCl2 to that of the bonds in PbCl4.

14.

Is the reaction of rubidium with water more or less vigorous than that of sodium? How does the rate of reaction of magnesium compare?

18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals

15.

Write an equation for the reduction of cesium chloride by elemental calcium at high temperature.

16.

Why is it necessary to keep the chlorine and sodium, resulting from the electrolysis of sodium chloride, separate during the production of sodium metal?

17.

Give balanced equations for the overall reaction in the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride and for the reactions occurring at the electrodes. You may wish to review the chapter on electrochemistry for relevant examples.

18.

The electrolysis of molten sodium chloride or of aqueous sodium chloride produces chlorine.

Calculate the mass of chlorine produced from 3.00 kg sodium chloride in each case. You may wish to review the chapter on electrochemistry for relevant examples.

19.

What mass, in grams, of hydrogen gas forms during the complete reaction of 10.01 g of calcium with water?

20.

How many grams of oxygen gas are necessary to react completely with 3.01 ×× 1021 atoms of magnesium to yield magnesium oxide?

21.

Magnesium is an active metal; it burns in the form of powder, ribbons, and filaments to provide flashes of brilliant light. Why is it possible to use magnesium in construction?

22.

Why is it possible for an active metal like aluminum to be useful as a structural metal?

23.

Describe the production of metallic aluminum by electrolytic reduction.

24.

What is the common ore of tin and how is tin separated from it?

25.

A chemist dissolves a 1.497-g sample of a type of metal (an alloy of Sn, Pb, Sb, and Cu) in nitric acid, and metastannic acid, H2SnO3, is precipitated. She heats the precipitate to drive off the water, which leaves 0.4909 g of tin(IV) oxide. What was the percentage of tin in the original sample?

26.

Consider the production of 100 kg of sodium metal using a current of 50,000 A, assuming a 100% yield.

(a) How long will it take to produce the 100 kg of sodium metal?

(b) What volume of chlorine at 25 °C and 1.00 atm forms?

27.

What mass of magnesium forms when 100,000 A is passed through a MgCl2 melt for 1.00 h if the yield of magnesium is 85% of the theoretical yield?

18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids

28.

Give the hybridization of the metalloid and the molecular geometry for each of the following compounds or ions. You may wish to review the chapters on chemical bonding and advanced covalent bonding for relevant examples.

(a) GeH4

(b) SbF3

(c) Te(OH)6

(d) H2Te

(e) GeF2

(f) TeCl4

(g) SiF62−SiF62−

(h) SbCl5

(i) TeF6

29.

Write a Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding.

(a) H3BPH3

(b) BF4BF4

(c) BBr3

(d) B(CH3)3

(e) B(OH)3

30.

Describe the hybridization of boron and the molecular structure about the boron in each of the following:

(a) H3BPH3

(b) BF4BF4

(c) BBr3

(d) B(CH3)3

(e) B(OH)3

31.

Using only the periodic table, write the complete electron configuration for silicon, including any empty orbitals in the valence shell. You may wish to review the chapter on electronic structure.

32.

Write a Lewis structure for each of the following molecules and ions:

(a) (CH3)3SiH

(b) SiO44−SiO44−

(c) Si2H6

(d) Si(OH)4

(e) SiF62−SiF62−

33.

Describe the hybridization of silicon and the molecular structure of the following molecules and ions:

(a) (CH3)3SiH

(b) SiO44−SiO44−

(c) Si2H6

(d) Si(OH)4

(e) SiF62−SiF62−

34.

Describe the hybridization and the bonding of a silicon atom in elemental silicon.

35.

Classify each of the following molecules as polar or nonpolar. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding.

(a) SiH4

(b) Si2H6

(c) SiCl3H

(d) SiF4

(e) SiCl2F2

36.

Silicon reacts with sulfur at elevated temperatures. If 0.0923 g of silicon reacts with sulfur to give 0.3030 g of silicon sulfide, determine the empirical formula of silicon sulfide.

37.

Name each of the following compounds:

(a) TeO2

(b) Sb2S3

(c) GeF4

(d) SiH4

(e) GeH4

38.

Write a balanced equation for the reaction of elemental boron with each of the following (most of these reactions require high temperature):

(a) F2

(b) O2

(c) S

(d) Se

(e) Br2

39.

Why is boron limited to a maximum coordination number of four in its compounds?

40.

Write a formula for each of the following compounds:

(a) silicon dioxide

(b) silicon tetraiodide

(c) silane

(d) silicon carbide

(e) magnesium silicide

41.

From the data given in Appendix I , determine the standard enthalpy change and the standard free energy change for each of the following reactions:

(a) BF3(g)+3H2O(l)B(OH)3(s)+3HF(g)BF3(g)+3H2O(l)B(OH)3(s)+3HF(g)

(b) BCl3(g)+3H2O(l)B(OH)3(s)+3HCl(g)BCl3(g)+3H2O(l)B(OH)3(s)+3HCl(g)

(c) B2H6(g)+6H2O(l)2B(OH)3(s)+6H2(g)B2H6(g)+6H2O(l)2B(OH)3(s)+6H2(g)

42.

A hydride of silicon prepared by the reaction of Mg2Si with acid exerted a pressure of 306 torr at 26 °C in a bulb with a volume of 57.0 mL. If the mass of the hydride was 0.0861 g, what is its molecular mass? What is the molecular formula for the hydride?

43.

Suppose you discovered a diamond completely encased in a silicate rock. How would you chemically free the diamond without harming it?

18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals

44.

Carbon forms a number of allotropes, two of which are graphite and diamond. Silicon has a diamond structure. Why is there no allotrope of silicon with a graphite structure?

45.

Nitrogen in the atmosphere exists as very stable diatomic molecules. Why does phosphorus form less stable P4 molecules instead of P2 molecules?

46.

Write balanced chemical equations for the reaction of the following acid anhydrides with water:

(a) SO3

(b) N2O3

(c) Cl2O7

(d) P4O10

(e) NO2

47.

Determine the oxidation number of each element in each of the following compounds:

(a) HCN

(b) OF2

(c) AsCl3

48.

Determine the oxidation state of sulfur in each of the following:

(a) SO3

(b) SO2

(c) SO32−SO32−

49.

Arrange the following in order of increasing electronegativity: F; Cl; O; and S.

50.

Why does white phosphorus consist of tetrahedral P4 molecules while nitrogen consists of diatomic N2 molecules?

18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen

51.

Why does hydrogen not exhibit an oxidation state of 1− when bonded to nonmetals?

52.

The reaction of calcium hydride, CaH2, with water can be characterized as a Lewis acid-base reaction:
CaH2(s)+2H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(aq)+2H2(g)CaH2(s)+2H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(aq)+2H2(g)

Identify the Lewis acid and the Lewis base among the reactants. The reaction is also an oxidation-reduction reaction. Identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, and the changes in oxidation number that occur in the reaction.

53.

In drawing Lewis structures, we learn that a hydrogen atom forms only one bond in a covalent compound. Why?

54.

What mass of CaH2 is necessary to react with water to provide enough hydrogen gas to fill a balloon at 20 °C and 0.8 atm pressure with a volume of 4.5 L? The balanced equation is:
CaH2(s)+2H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(aq)+2H2(g)CaH2(s)+2H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(aq)+2H2(g)

55.

What mass of hydrogen gas results from the reaction of 8.5 g of KH with water?
KH+H2OKOH+H2KH+H2OKOH+H2

18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates

56.

Carbon forms the CO32−CO32− ion, yet silicon does not form an analogous SiO32−SiO32− ion. Why?

57.

Complete and balance the following chemical equations:

(a) hardening of plaster containing slaked lime
Ca(OH)2+CO2Ca(OH)2+CO2

(b) removal of sulfur dioxide from the flue gas of power plants
CaO+SO2CaO+SO2

(c) the reaction of baking powder that produces carbon dioxide gas and causes bread to rise
NaHCO3+NaH2PO4NaHCO3+NaH2PO4

58.

Heating a sample of Na2CO3xH2O weighing 4.640 g until the removal of the water of hydration leaves 1.720 g of anhydrous Na2CO3. What is the formula of the hydrated compound?

18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen

59.

Write the Lewis structures for each of the following:

(a) NH2−

(b) N2F4

(c) NH2NH2

(d) NF3

(e) N3N3

60.

For each of the following, indicate the hybridization of the nitrogen atom (for N3,N3, the central nitrogen).

(a) N2F4

(b) NH2NH2

(c) NF3

(d) N3N3

61.

Explain how ammonia can function both as a Brønsted base and as a Lewis base.

62.

Determine the oxidation state of nitrogen in each of the following. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding for relevant examples.

(a) NCl3

(b) ClNO

(c) N2O5

(d) N2O3

(e) NO2NO2

(f) N2O4

(g) N2O

(h) NO3NO3

(i) HNO2

(j) HNO3

63.

For each of the following, draw the Lewis structure, predict the ONO bond angle, and give the hybridization of the nitrogen. You may wish to review the chapters on chemical bonding and advanced theories of covalent bonding for relevant examples.

(a) NO2

(b) NO2NO2

(c) NO2+NO2+

64.

How many grams of gaseous ammonia will the reaction of 3.0 g hydrogen gas and 3.0 g of nitrogen gas produce?

65.

Although PF5 and AsF5 are stable, nitrogen does not form NF5 molecules. Explain this difference among members of the same group.

66.

The equivalence point for the titration of a 25.00-mL sample of CsOH solution with 0.1062 M HNO3 is at 35.27 mL. What is the concentration of the CsOH solution?

18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus

67.

Write the Lewis structure for each of the following. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding and molecular geometry.

(a) PH3

(b) PH4+PH4+

(c) P2H4

(d) PO43−PO43−

(e) PF5

68.

Describe the molecular structure of each of the following molecules or ions listed. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding and molecular geometry.

(a) PH3

(b) PH4+PH4+

(c) P2H4

(d) PO43−PO43−

69.

Complete and balance each of the following chemical equations. (In some cases, there may be more than one correct answer.)

(a) P4+AlP4+Al

(b) P4+NaP4+Na

(c) P4+F2P4+F2

(d) P4+Cl2P4+Cl2

(e) P4+O2P4+O2

(f) P4O6+O2P4O6+O2

70.

Describe the hybridization of phosphorus in each of the following compounds: P4O10, P4O6, PH4I (an ionic compound), PBr3, H3PO4, H3PO3, PH3, and P2H4. You may wish to review the chapter on advanced theories of covalent bonding.

71.

What volume of 0.200 M NaOH is necessary to neutralize the solution produced by dissolving 2.00 g of PCl3 is an excess of water? Note that when H3PO3 is titrated under these conditions, only one proton of the acid molecule reacts.

72.

How much POCl3 can form from 25.0 g of PCl5 and the appropriate amount of H2O?

73.

How many tons of Ca3(PO4)2 are necessary to prepare 5.0 tons of phosphorus if the yield is 90%?

74.

Write equations showing the stepwise ionization of phosphorous acid.

75.

Draw the Lewis structures and describe the geometry for the following:

(a) PF4+PF4+

(b) PF5

(c) PF6PF6

(d) POF3

76.

Why does phosphorous acid form only two series of salts, even though the molecule contains three hydrogen atoms?

77.

Assign an oxidation state to phosphorus in each of the following:

(a) NaH2PO3

(b) PF5

(c) P4O6

(d) K3PO4

(e) Na3P

(f) Na4P2O7

78.

Phosphoric acid, one of the acids used in some cola drinks, is produced by the reaction of phosphorus(V) oxide, an acidic oxide, with water. Phosphorus(V) oxide is prepared by the combustion of phosphorus.

(a) Write the empirical formula of phosphorus(V) oxide.

(b) What is the molecular formula of phosphorus(V) oxide if the molar mass is about 280.

(c) Write balanced equations for the production of phosphorus(V) oxide and phosphoric acid.

(d) Determine the mass of phosphorus required to make 1.00 ×× 104 kg of phosphoric acid, assuming a yield of 98.85%.

18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen

79.

Predict the product of burning francium in air.

80.

Using equations, describe the reaction of water with potassium and with potassium oxide.

81.

Write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions:

(a) zinc metal heated in a stream of oxygen gas

(b) zinc carbonate heated until loss of mass stops

(c) zinc carbonate added to a solution of acetic acid, CH3CO2H

(d) zinc added to a solution of hydrobromic acid

82.

Write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions:

(a) cadmium burned in air

(b) elemental cadmium added to a solution of hydrochloric acid

(c) cadmium hydroxide added to a solution of acetic acid, CH3CO2H

83.

Illustrate the amphoteric nature of aluminum hydroxide by citing suitable equations.

84.

Write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions:

(a) metallic aluminum burned in air

(b) elemental aluminum heated in an atmosphere of chlorine

(c) aluminum heated in hydrogen bromide gas

(d) aluminum hydroxide added to a solution of nitric acid

85.

Write balanced chemical equations for the following reactions:

(a) sodium oxide added to water

(b) cesium carbonate added to an excess of an aqueous solution of HF

(c) aluminum oxide added to an aqueous solution of HClO4

(d) a solution of sodium carbonate added to solution of barium nitrate

(e) titanium metal produced from the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with elemental sodium

86.

What volume of 0.250 M H2SO4 solution is required to neutralize a solution that contains 5.00 g of CaCO3?

87.

Which is the stronger acid, HClO4 or HBrO4? Why?

88.

Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of an excess of oxygen with each of the following. Remember that oxygen is a strong oxidizing agent and tends to oxidize an element to its maximum oxidation state.

(a) Mg

(b) Rb

(c) Ga

(d) C2H2

(e) CO

89.

Which is the stronger acid, H2SO4 or H2SeO4? Why? You may wish to review the chapter on acid-base equilibria.

18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur

90.

Explain why hydrogen sulfide is a gas at room temperature, whereas water, which has a lower molecular mass, is a liquid.

91.

Give the hybridization and oxidation state for sulfur in SO2, in SO3, and in H2SO4.

92.

Which is the stronger acid, NaHSO3 or NaHSO4?

93.

Determine the oxidation state of sulfur in SF6, SO2F2, and KHS.

94.

Which is a stronger acid, sulfurous acid or sulfuric acid? Why?

95.

Oxygen forms double bonds in O2, but sulfur forms single bonds in S8. Why?

96.

Give the Lewis structure of each of the following:

(a) SF4

(b) K2SO4

(c) SO2Cl2

(d) H2SO3

(e) SO3

97.

Write two balanced chemical equations in which sulfuric acid acts as an oxidizing agent.

98.

Explain why sulfuric acid, H2SO4, which is a covalent molecule, dissolves in water and produces a solution that contains ions.

99.

How many grams of Epsom salts (MgSO4⋅7H2O) will form from 5.0 kg of magnesium?

18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens

100.

What does it mean to say that mercury(II) halides are weak electrolytes?

101.

Why is SnCl4 not classified as a salt?

102.

The following reactions are all similar to those of the industrial chemicals. Complete and balance the equations for these reactions:

(a) reaction of a weak base and a strong acid
NH3+HClO4NH3+HClO4

(b) preparation of a soluble silver salt for silver plating
Ag2CO3+HNO3Ag2CO3+HNO3

(c) preparation of strontium hydroxide by electrolysis of a solution of strontium chloride
SrCl2(aq)+H2O(l)electrolysisSrCl2(aq)+H2O(l)electrolysis

103.

Which is the stronger acid, HClO3 or HBrO3? Why?

104.

What is the hybridization of iodine in IF3 and IF5?

105.

Predict the molecular geometries and draw Lewis structures for each of the following. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding and molecular geometry.

(a) IF5

(b) I3I3

(c) PCl5

(d) SeF4

(e) ClF3

106.

Which halogen has the highest ionization energy? Is this what you would predict based on what you have learned about periodic properties?

107.

Name each of the following compounds:

(a) BrF3

(b) NaBrO3

(c) PBr5

(d) NaClO4

(e) KClO

108.

Explain why, at room temperature, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a solid.

109.

What is the oxidation state of the halogen in each of the following?

(a) H5IO6

(b) IO4IO4

(c) ClO2

(d) ICl3

(e) F2

110.

Physiological saline concentration—that is, the sodium chloride concentration in our bodies—is approximately 0.16 M. A saline solution for contact lenses is prepared to match the physiological concentration. If you purchase 25 mL of contact lens saline solution, how many grams of sodium chloride have you bought?

18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases

111.

Give the hybridization of xenon in each of the following. You may wish to review the chapter on the advanced theories of covalent bonding.

(a) XeF2

(b) XeF4

(c) XeO3

(d) XeO4

(e) XeOF4

112.

What is the molecular structure of each of the following molecules? You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding and molecular geometry.

(a) XeF2

(b) XeF4

(c) XeO3

(d) XeO4

(e) XeOF4

113.

Indicate whether each of the following molecules is polar or nonpolar. You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding and molecular geometry.

(a) XeF2

(b) XeF4

(c) XeO3

(d) XeO4

(e) XeOF4

114.

What is the oxidation state of the noble gas in each of the following? You may wish to review the chapter on chemical bonding and molecular geometry.

(a) XeO2F2

(b) KrF2

(c) XeF3+XeF3+

(d) XeO64−XeO64−

(e) XeO3

115.

A mixture of xenon and fluorine was heated. A sample of the white solid that formed reacted with hydrogen to yield 81 mL of xenon (at STP) and hydrogen fluoride, which was collected in water, giving a solution of hydrofluoric acid. The hydrofluoric acid solution was titrated, and 68.43 mL of 0.3172 M sodium hydroxide was required to reach the equivalence point. Determine the empirical formula for the white solid and write balanced chemical equations for the reactions involving xenon.

116.

Basic solutions of Na4XeO6 are powerful oxidants. What mass of Mn(NO3)2•6H2O reacts with 125.0 mL of a 0.1717 M basic solution of Na4XeO6 that contains an excess of sodium hydroxide if the products include Xe and solution of sodium permanganate?

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