Chemistry: Atoms First 2e

# Summary

### 13.1Chemical Equilibria

A reversible reaction is at equilibrium when the forward and reverse processes occur at equal rates. Chemical equilibria are dynamic processes characterized by constant amounts of reactant and product species.

### 13.2Equilibrium Constants

The composition of a reaction mixture may be represented by a mathematical function known as the reaction quotient, Q. For a reaction at equilibrium, the composition is constant, and Q is called the equilibrium constant, K.

A homogeneous equilibrium is an equilibrium in which all components are in the same phase. A heterogeneous equilibrium is an equilibrium in which components are in two or more phases.

### 13.3Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle

Systems at equilibrium can be disturbed by changes to temperature, concentration, and, in some cases, volume and pressure. The system’s response to these disturbances is described by Le Châtelier’s principle: An equilibrium system subjected to a disturbance will shift in a way that counters the disturbance and re-establishes equilibrium. A catalyst will increase the rate of both the forward and reverse reactions of a reversible process, increasing the rate at which equilibrium is reached but not altering the equilibrium mixture’s composition (K does not change).

### 13.4Equilibrium Calculations

Calculating values for equilibrium constants and/or equilibrium concentrations is of practical benefit to many applications. A mathematical strategy that uses initial concentrations, changes in concentrations, and equilibrium concentrations (and goes by the acronym ICE) is useful for several types of equilibrium calculations. We also learned that a negative value for ΔG indicates a spontaneous process; a positive ΔG indicates a nonspontaneous process; and a ΔG of zero indicates that the system is at equilibrium. We also saw how free energy, spontaneity, and equilibrium relate.

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