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state of a reversible reaction in which the forward and reverse processes occur at equal rates
equilibrium constant (K)
value of the reaction quotient for a system at equilibrium; may be expressed using concentrations (Kc) or partial pressures (Kp)
heterogeneous equilibria
equilibria in which reactants and products occupy two or more different phases
homogeneous equilibria
equilibria in which all reactants and products occupy the same phase
law of mass action
when a reversible reaction has attained equilibrium at a given temperature, the reaction quotient remains constant
Le Châtelier’s principle
an equilibrium subjected to stress will shift in a way to counter the stress and re-establish equilibrium
reaction quotient (Q)
mathematical function describing the relative amounts of reactants and products in a reaction mixture; may be expressed in terms of concentrations (Qc) or pressures (Qp)
reversible reaction
chemical reaction that can proceed in both the forward and reverse directions under given conditions
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