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Chemistry 2e

Key Terms

Chemistry 2eKey Terms

entropy (S)
state function that is a measure of the matter and/or energy dispersal within a system, determined by the number of system microstates; often described as a measure of the disorder of the system
Gibbs free energy change (G)
thermodynamic property defined in terms of system enthalpy and entropy; all spontaneous processes involve a decrease in G
possible configuration or arrangement of matter and energy within a system
nonspontaneous process
process that requires continual input of energy from an external source
reversible process
process that takes place so slowly as to be capable of reversing direction in response to an infinitesimally small change in conditions; hypothetical construct that can only be approximated by real processes
second law of thermodynamics
all spontaneous processes involve an increase in the entropy of the universe
spontaneous change
process that takes place without a continuous input of energy from an external source
standard entropy (S°)
entropy for one mole of a substance at 1 bar pressure; tabulated values are usually determined at 298.15 K
standard entropy change (ΔS°)
change in entropy for a reaction calculated using the standard entropies
standard free energy change (ΔG°)
change in free energy for a process occurring under standard conditions (1 bar pressure for gases, 1 M concentration for solutions)
standard free energy of formation (ΔGf°)(ΔGf°)
change in free energy accompanying the formation of one mole of substance from its elements in their standard states
third law of thermodynamics
entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero (0 K) is zero
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