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Key Terms

absolute error
if BB is an estimate of some quantity having an actual value of A,A, then the absolute error is given by |AB||AB|
computer algebra system (CAS)
technology used to perform many mathematical tasks, including integration
improper integral
an integral over an infinite interval or an integral of a function containing an infinite discontinuity on the interval; an improper integral is defined in terms of a limit. The improper integral converges if this limit is a finite real number; otherwise, the improper integral diverges
integration by parts
a technique of integration that allows the exchange of one integral for another using the formula udv=uvvduudv=uvvdu
integration table
a table that lists integration formulas
midpoint rule
a rule that uses a Riemann sum of the form Mn=i=1nf(mi)Δx,Mn=i=1nf(mi)Δx, where mimi is the midpoint of the ith subinterval to approximate abf(x)dxabf(x)dx
numerical integration
the variety of numerical methods used to estimate the value of a definite integral, including the midpoint rule, trapezoidal rule, and Simpson’s rule
partial fraction decomposition
a technique used to break down a rational function into the sum of simple rational functions
power reduction formula
a rule that allows an integral of a power of a trigonometric function to be exchanged for an integral involving a lower power
relative error
error as a percentage of the absolute value, given by |ABA|=|ABA|·100%|ABA|=|ABA|·100%
Simpson’s rule
a rule that approximates abf(x)dxabf(x)dx using the integrals of a piecewise quadratic function. The approximation SnSn to abf(x)dxabf(x)dx is given by Sn=Δx3(f(x0)+4f(x1)+2f(x2)+4f(x3)+2f(x4)+4f(x5)++2f(xn2)+4f(xn1)+f(xn))Sn=Δx3(f(x0)+4f(x1)+2f(x2)+4f(x3)+2f(x4)+4f(x5)++2f(xn2)+4f(xn1)+f(xn)) trapezoidal rule a rule that approximates abf(x)dxabf(x)dx using trapezoids
trigonometric integral
an integral involving powers and products of trigonometric functions
trigonometric substitution
an integration technique that converts an algebraic integral containing expressions of the form a2x2,a2x2, a2+x2,a2+x2, or x2a2x2a2 into a trigonometric integral
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