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Calculus Volume 2

Key Concepts

Calculus Volume 2Key Concepts
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 1.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 1.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 1.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 1.5 Substitution
    7. 1.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 1.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  3. 2 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 2.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 2.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 2.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 2.5 Physical Applications
    7. 2.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 2.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 2.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 2.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  4. 3 Techniques of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Integration by Parts
    3. 3.2 Trigonometric Integrals
    4. 3.3 Trigonometric Substitution
    5. 3.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 3.5 Other Strategies for Integration
    7. 3.6 Numerical Integration
    8. 3.7 Improper Integrals
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  5. 4 Introduction to Differential Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Basics of Differential Equations
    3. 4.2 Direction Fields and Numerical Methods
    4. 4.3 Separable Equations
    5. 4.4 The Logistic Equation
    6. 4.5 First-order Linear Equations
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  6. 5 Sequences and Series
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sequences
    3. 5.2 Infinite Series
    4. 5.3 The Divergence and Integral Tests
    5. 5.4 Comparison Tests
    6. 5.5 Alternating Series
    7. 5.6 Ratio and Root Tests
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Chapter Review Exercises
  7. 6 Power Series
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Power Series and Functions
    3. 6.2 Properties of Power Series
    4. 6.3 Taylor and Maclaurin Series
    5. 6.4 Working with Taylor Series
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Chapter Review Exercises
  8. 7 Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Parametric Equations
    3. 7.2 Calculus of Parametric Curves
    4. 7.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 7.4 Area and Arc Length in Polar Coordinates
    6. 7.5 Conic Sections
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  9. A | Table of Integrals
  10. B | Table of Derivatives
  11. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  12. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
  13. Index

3.1 Integration by Parts

  • The integration-by-parts formula allows the exchange of one integral for another, possibly easier, integral.
  • Integration by parts applies to both definite and indefinite integrals.

3.2 Trigonometric Integrals

  • Integrals of trigonometric functions can be evaluated by the use of various strategies. These strategies include
    1. Applying trigonometric identities to rewrite the integral so that it may be evaluated by u-substitution
    2. Using integration by parts
    3. Applying trigonometric identities to rewrite products of sines and cosines with different arguments as the sum of individual sine and cosine functions
    4. Applying reduction formulas

3.3 Trigonometric Substitution

  • For integrals involving a2x2,a2x2, use the substitution x=asinθx=asinθ and dx=acosθdθ.dx=acosθdθ.
  • For integrals involving a2+x2,a2+x2, use the substitution x=atanθx=atanθ and dx=asec2θdθ.dx=asec2θdθ.
  • For integrals involving x2a2,x2a2, substitute x=asecθx=asecθ and dx=asecθtanθdθ.dx=asecθtanθdθ.

3.4 Partial Fractions

  • Partial fraction decomposition is a technique used to break down a rational function into a sum of simple rational functions that can be integrated using previously learned techniques.
  • When applying partial fraction decomposition, we must make sure that the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. If not, we need to perform long division before attempting partial fraction decomposition.
  • The form the decomposition takes depends on the type of factors in the denominator. The types of factors include nonrepeated linear factors, repeated linear factors, nonrepeated irreducible quadratic factors, and repeated irreducible quadratic factors.

3.5 Other Strategies for Integration

  • An integration table may be used to evaluate indefinite integrals.
  • A CAS (or computer algebra system) may be used to evaluate indefinite integrals.
  • It may require some effort to reconcile equivalent solutions obtained using different methods.

3.6 Numerical Integration

  • We can use numerical integration to estimate the values of definite integrals when a closed form of the integral is difficult to find or when an approximate value only of the definite integral is needed.
  • The most commonly used techniques for numerical integration are the midpoint rule, trapezoidal rule, and Simpson’s rule.
  • The midpoint rule approximates the definite integral using rectangular regions whereas the trapezoidal rule approximates the definite integral using trapezoidal approximations.
  • Simpson’s rule approximates the definite integral by first approximating the original function using piecewise quadratic functions.

3.7 Improper Integrals

  • Integrals of functions over infinite intervals are defined in terms of limits.
  • Integrals of functions over an interval for which the function has a discontinuity at an endpoint may be defined in terms of limits.
  • The convergence or divergence of an improper integral may be determined by comparing it with the value of an improper integral for which the convergence or divergence is known.
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