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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions and Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Review of Functions
    3. 1.2 Basic Classes of Functions
    4. 1.3 Trigonometric Functions
    5. 1.4 Inverse Functions
    6. 1.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  3. 2 Limits
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 A Preview of Calculus
    3. 2.2 The Limit of a Function
    4. 2.3 The Limit Laws
    5. 2.4 Continuity
    6. 2.5 The Precise Definition of a Limit
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  4. 3 Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Defining the Derivative
    3. 3.2 The Derivative as a Function
    4. 3.3 Differentiation Rules
    5. 3.4 Derivatives as Rates of Change
    6. 3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
    7. 3.6 The Chain Rule
    8. 3.7 Derivatives of Inverse Functions
    9. 3.8 Implicit Differentiation
    10. 3.9 Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    11. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  5. 4 Applications of Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Related Rates
    3. 4.2 Linear Approximations and Differentials
    4. 4.3 Maxima and Minima
    5. 4.4 The Mean Value Theorem
    6. 4.5 Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
    7. 4.6 Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
    8. 4.7 Applied Optimization Problems
    9. 4.8 L’Hôpital’s Rule
    10. 4.9 Newton’s Method
    11. 4.10 Antiderivatives
    12. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  6. 5 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 5.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 5.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 5.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 5.5 Substitution
    7. 5.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 5.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  7. 6 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 6.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 6.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 6.5 Physical Applications
    7. 6.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 6.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 6.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 6.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  8. A | Table of Integrals
  9. B | Table of Derivatives
  10. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
  12. Index

Welcome to Calculus Volume 1, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

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About Calculus Volume 1

Calculus is designed for the typical two- or three-semester general calculus course, incorporating innovative features to enhance student learning. The book guides students through the core concepts of calculus and helps them understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them. Due to the comprehensive nature of the material, we are offering the book in three volumes for flexibility and efficiency. Volume 1 covers functions, limits, derivatives, and integration.

Coverage and scope

Our Calculus Volume 1 textbook adheres to the scope and sequence of most general calculus courses nationwide. We have worked to make calculus interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigor inherent in the subject. With this objective in mind, the content of the three volumes of Calculus have been developed and arranged to provide a logical progression from fundamental to more advanced concepts, building upon what students have already learned and emphasizing connections between topics and between theory and applications. The goal of each section is to enable students not just to recognize concepts, but work with them in ways that will be useful in later courses and future careers. The organization and pedagogical features were developed and vetted with feedback from mathematics educators dedicated to the project.

Volume 1
  • Chapter 1: Functions and Graphs
  • Chapter 2: Limits
  • Chapter 3: Derivatives
  • Chapter 4: Applications of Derivatives
  • Chapter 5: Integration
  • Chapter 6: Applications of Integration
Volume 2
  • Chapter 1: Integration
  • Chapter 2: Applications of Integration
  • Chapter 3: Techniques of Integration
  • Chapter 4: Introduction to Differential Equations
  • Chapter 5: Sequences and Series
  • Chapter 6: Power Series
  • Chapter 7: Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates
Volume 3
  • Chapter 1: Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates
  • Chapter 2: Vectors in Space
  • Chapter 3: Vector-Valued Functions
  • Chapter 4: Differentiation of Functions of Several Variables
  • Chapter 5: Multiple Integration
  • Chapter 6: Vector Calculus
  • Chapter 7: Second-Order Differential Equations

Pedagogical foundation

Throughout Calculus Volume 1 you will find examples and exercises that present classical ideas and techniques as well as modern applications and methods. Derivations and explanations are based on years of classroom experience on the part of long-time calculus professors, striving for a balance of clarity and rigor that has proven successful with their students. Motivational applications cover important topics in probability, biology, ecology, business, and economics, as well as areas of physics, chemistry, engineering, and computer science. Student Projects in each chapter give students opportunities to explore interesting sidelights in pure and applied mathematics, from determining a safe distance between the grandstand and the track at a Formula One racetrack, to calculating the center of mass of the Grand Canyon Skywalk or the terminal speed of a skydiver. Chapter Opening Applications pose problems that are solved later in the chapter, using the ideas covered in that chapter. Problems include the hydraulic force against the Hoover Dam, and the comparison of relative intensity of two earthquakes. Definitions, Rules, and Theorems are highlighted throughout the text, including over 60 Proofs of theorems.

Assessments that reinforce key concepts

In-chapter Examples walk students through problems by posing a question, stepping out a solution, and then asking students to practice the skill with a “Checkpoint” question. The book also includes assessments at the end of each chapter so students can apply what they’ve learned through practice problems. Many exercises are marked with a [T] to indicate they are suitable for solution by technology, including calculators or Computer Algebra Systems (CAS). Answers for selected exercises are available in the Answer Key at the back of the book. The book also includes assessments at the end of each chapter so students can apply what they’ve learned through practice problems.

Early or late transcendentals

Calculus Volume 1 is designed to accommodate both Early and Late Transcendental approaches to calculus. Exponential and logarithmic functions are introduced informally in Chapter 1 and presented in more rigorous terms in Chapter 6. Differentiation and integration of these functions is covered in Chapters 3–5 for instructors who want to include them with other types of functions. These discussions, however, are in separate sections that can be skipped for instructors who prefer to wait until the integral definitions are given before teaching the calculus derivations of exponentials and logarithms.

Comprehensive art program

Our art program is designed to enhance students’ understanding of concepts through clear and effective illustrations, diagrams, and photographs.

... ...

Additional resources

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About the authors

Senior contributing authors

Gilbert Strang, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Dr. Strang received his PhD from UCLA in 1959 and has been teaching mathematics at MIT ever since. His Calculus online textbook is one of eleven that he has published and is the basis from which our final product has been derived and updated for today’s student. Strang is a decorated mathematician and past Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University.

Edwin “Jed” Herman, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
Dr. Herman earned a BS in Mathematics from Harvey Mudd College in 1985, an MA in Mathematics from UCLA in 1987, and a PhD in Mathematics from the University of Oregon in 1997. He is currently a Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. He has more than 20 years of experience teaching college mathematics, is a student research mentor, is experienced in course development/design, and is also an avid board game designer and player.

Contributing authors

Catherine Abbott, Keuka College
Nicoleta Virginia Bila, Fayetteville State University
Sheri J. Boyd, Rollins College
Joyati Debnath, Winona State University
Valeree Falduto, Palm Beach State College
Joseph Lakey, New Mexico State University
Julie Levandosky, Framingham State University
David McCune, William Jewell College
Michelle Merriweather, Bronxville High School
Kirsten R. Messer, Colorado State University - Pueblo
Alfred K. Mulzet, Florida State College at Jacksonville
William Radulovich (retired), Florida State College at Jacksonville
Erica M. Rutter, Arizona State University
David Smith, University of the Virgin Islands
Elaine A. Terry, Saint Joseph’s University
David Torain, Hampton University


Marwan A. Abu-Sawwa, Florida State College at Jacksonville
Kenneth J. Bernard, Virginia State University
John Beyers, University of Maryland
Charles Buehrle, Franklin & Marshall College
Matthew Cathey, Wofford College
Michael Cohen, Hofstra University
William DeSalazar, Broward County School System
Murray Eisenberg, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Kristyanna Erickson, Cecil College
Tiernan Fogarty, Oregon Institute of Technology
David French, Tidewater Community College
Marilyn Gloyer, Virginia Commonwealth University
Shawna Haider, Salt Lake Community College
Lance Hemlow, Raritan Valley Community College
Jerry Jared, The Blue Ridge School
Peter Jipsen, Chapman University
David Johnson, Lehigh University
M.R. Khadivi, Jackson State University
Robert J. Krueger, Concordia University
Tor A. Kwembe, Jackson State University
Jean-Marie Magnier, Springfield Technical Community College
Cheryl Chute Miller, SUNY Potsdam
Bagisa Mukherjee, Penn State University, Worthington Scranton Campus
Kasso Okoudjou, University of Maryland College Park
Peter Olszewski, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College
Steven Purtee, Valencia College
Alice Ramos, Bethel College
Doug Shaw, University of Northern Iowa
Hussain Elalaoui-Talibi, Tuskegee University
Jeffrey Taub, Maine Maritime Academy
William Thistleton, SUNY Polytechnic Institute
A. David Trubatch, Montclair State University
Carmen Wright, Jackson State University
Zhenbu Zhang, Jackson State University

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