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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions and Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Review of Functions
    3. 1.2 Basic Classes of Functions
    4. 1.3 Trigonometric Functions
    5. 1.4 Inverse Functions
    6. 1.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  3. 2 Limits
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 A Preview of Calculus
    3. 2.2 The Limit of a Function
    4. 2.3 The Limit Laws
    5. 2.4 Continuity
    6. 2.5 The Precise Definition of a Limit
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  4. 3 Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Defining the Derivative
    3. 3.2 The Derivative as a Function
    4. 3.3 Differentiation Rules
    5. 3.4 Derivatives as Rates of Change
    6. 3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
    7. 3.6 The Chain Rule
    8. 3.7 Derivatives of Inverse Functions
    9. 3.8 Implicit Differentiation
    10. 3.9 Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  5. 4 Applications of Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Related Rates
    3. 4.2 Linear Approximations and Differentials
    4. 4.3 Maxima and Minima
    5. 4.4 The Mean Value Theorem
    6. 4.5 Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
    7. 4.6 Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
    8. 4.7 Applied Optimization Problems
    9. 4.8 L’Hôpital’s Rule
    10. 4.9 Newton’s Method
    11. 4.10 Antiderivatives
    12. Key Terms
    13. Key Equations
    14. Key Concepts
    15. Chapter Review Exercises
  6. 5 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 5.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 5.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 5.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 5.5 Substitution
    7. 5.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 5.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  7. 6 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 6.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 6.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 6.5 Physical Applications
    7. 6.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 6.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 6.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 6.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  8. A | Table of Integrals
  9. B | Table of Derivatives
  10. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
  12. Index
arc length
the arc length of a curve can be thought of as the distance a person would travel along the path of the curve
catenary
a curve in the shape of the function y=acosh(x/a)y=acosh(x/a) is a catenary; a cable of uniform density suspended between two supports assumes the shape of a catenary
center of mass
the point at which the total mass of the system could be concentrated without changing the moment
centroid
the centroid of a region is the geometric center of the region; laminas are often represented by regions in the plane; if the lamina has a constant density, the center of mass of the lamina depends only on the shape of the corresponding planar region; in this case, the center of mass of the lamina corresponds to the centroid of the representative region
cross-section
the intersection of a plane and a solid object
density function
a density function describes how mass is distributed throughout an object; it can be a linear density, expressed in terms of mass per unit length; an area density, expressed in terms of mass per unit area; or a volume density, expressed in terms of mass per unit volume; weight-density is also used to describe weight (rather than mass) per unit volume
disk method
a special case of the slicing method used with solids of revolution when the slices are disks
doubling time
if a quantity grows exponentially, the doubling time is the amount of time it takes the quantity to double, and is given by (ln2)/k(ln2)/k
exponential decay
systems that exhibit exponential decay follow a model of the form y=y0ekty=y0ekt
exponential growth
systems that exhibit exponential growth follow a model of the form y=y0ekty=y0ekt
frustum
a portion of a cone; a frustum is constructed by cutting the cone with a plane parallel to the base
half-life
if a quantity decays exponentially, the half-life is the amount of time it takes the quantity to be reduced by half. It is given by (ln2)/k(ln2)/k
Hooke’s law
this law states that the force required to compress (or elongate) a spring is proportional to the distance the spring has been compressed (or stretched) from equilibrium; in other words, F=kx,F=kx, where kk is a constant
hydrostatic pressure
the pressure exerted by water on a submerged object
lamina
a thin sheet of material; laminas are thin enough that, for mathematical purposes, they can be treated as if they are two-dimensional
method of cylindrical shells
a method of calculating the volume of a solid of revolution by dividing the solid into nested cylindrical shells; this method is different from the methods of disks or washers in that we integrate with respect to the opposite variable
moment
if n masses are arranged on a number line, the moment of the system with respect to the origin is given by M=i=1nmixi;M=i=1nmixi; if, instead, we consider a region in the plane, bounded above by a function f(x)f(x) over an interval [a,b],[a,b], then the moments of the region with respect to the x- and y-axes are given by Mx=ρab[f(x)]22dxMx=ρab[f(x)]22dx and My=ρabxf(x)dx,My=ρabxf(x)dx, respectively
slicing method
a method of calculating the volume of a solid that involves cutting the solid into pieces, estimating the volume of each piece, then adding these estimates to arrive at an estimate of the total volume; as the number of slices goes to infinity, this estimate becomes an integral that gives the exact value of the volume
solid of revolution
a solid generated by revolving a region in a plane around a line in that plane
surface area
the surface area of a solid is the total area of the outer layer of the object; for objects such as cubes or bricks, the surface area of the object is the sum of the areas of all of its faces
symmetry principle
the symmetry principle states that if a region R is symmetric about a line l, then the centroid of R lies on l
theorem of Pappus for volume
this theorem states that the volume of a solid of revolution formed by revolving a region around an external axis is equal to the area of the region multiplied by the distance traveled by the centroid of the region
washer method
a special case of the slicing method used with solids of revolution when the slices are washers
work
the amount of energy it takes to move an object; in physics, when a force is constant, work is expressed as the product of force and distance
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