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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions and Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Review of Functions
    3. 1.2 Basic Classes of Functions
    4. 1.3 Trigonometric Functions
    5. 1.4 Inverse Functions
    6. 1.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  3. 2 Limits
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 A Preview of Calculus
    3. 2.2 The Limit of a Function
    4. 2.3 The Limit Laws
    5. 2.4 Continuity
    6. 2.5 The Precise Definition of a Limit
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  4. 3 Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Defining the Derivative
    3. 3.2 The Derivative as a Function
    4. 3.3 Differentiation Rules
    5. 3.4 Derivatives as Rates of Change
    6. 3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
    7. 3.6 The Chain Rule
    8. 3.7 Derivatives of Inverse Functions
    9. 3.8 Implicit Differentiation
    10. 3.9 Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  5. 4 Applications of Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Related Rates
    3. 4.2 Linear Approximations and Differentials
    4. 4.3 Maxima and Minima
    5. 4.4 The Mean Value Theorem
    6. 4.5 Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
    7. 4.6 Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
    8. 4.7 Applied Optimization Problems
    9. 4.8 L’Hôpital’s Rule
    10. 4.9 Newton’s Method
    11. 4.10 Antiderivatives
    12. Key Terms
    13. Key Equations
    14. Key Concepts
    15. Chapter Review Exercises
  6. 5 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 5.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 5.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 5.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 5.5 Substitution
    7. 5.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 5.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  7. 6 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 6.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 6.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 6.5 Physical Applications
    7. 6.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 6.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 6.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 6.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  8. A | Table of Integrals
  9. B | Table of Derivatives
  10. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
  12. Index
average value of a function
(or fave) the average value of a function on an interval can be found by calculating the definite integral of the function and dividing that value by the length of the interval
change of variables
the substitution of a variable, such as u, for an expression in the integrand
definite integral
a primary operation of calculus; the area between the curve and the x-axis over a given interval is a definite integral
fundamental theorem of calculus
the theorem, central to the entire development of calculus, that establishes the relationship between differentiation and integration
fundamental theorem of calculus, part 1
uses a definite integral to define an antiderivative of a function
fundamental theorem of calculus, part 2
(also, evaluation theorem) we can evaluate a definite integral by evaluating the antiderivative of the integrand at the endpoints of the interval and subtracting
integrable function
a function is integrable if the limit defining the integral exists; in other words, if the limit of the Riemann sums as n goes to infinity exists
integrand
the function to the right of the integration symbol; the integrand includes the function being integrated
integration by substitution
a technique for integration that allows integration of functions that are the result of a chain-rule derivative
left-endpoint approximation
an approximation of the area under a curve computed by using the left endpoint of each subinterval to calculate the height of the vertical sides of each rectangle
limits of integration
these values appear near the top and bottom of the integral sign and define the interval over which the function should be integrated
lower sum
a sum obtained by using the minimum value of f(x)f(x) on each subinterval
mean value theorem for integrals
guarantees that a point c exists such that f(c)f(c) is equal to the average value of the function
net change theorem
if we know the rate of change of a quantity, the net change theorem says the future quantity is equal to the initial quantity plus the integral of the rate of change of the quantity
net signed area
the area between a function and the x-axis such that the area below the x-axis is subtracted from the area above the x-axis; the result is the same as the definite integral of the function
partition
a set of points that divides an interval into subintervals
regular partition
a partition in which the subintervals all have the same width
riemann sum
an estimate of the area under the curve of the form Ai=1nf(xi*)ΔxAi=1nf(xi*)Δx
right-endpoint approximation
the right-endpoint approximation is an approximation of the area of the rectangles under a curve using the right endpoint of each subinterval to construct the vertical sides of each rectangle
sigma notation
(also, summation notation) the Greek letter sigma (Σ) indicates addition of the values; the values of the index above and below the sigma indicate where to begin the summation and where to end it
total area
total area between a function and the x-axis is calculated by adding the area above the x-axis and the area below the x-axis; the result is the same as the definite integral of the absolute value of the function
upper sum
a sum obtained by using the maximum value of f(x)f(x) on each subinterval
variable of integration
indicates which variable you are integrating with respect to; if it is x, then the function in the integrand is followed by dx
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