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Calculus Volume 1

Key Concepts

Calculus Volume 1Key Concepts
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions and Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Review of Functions
    3. 1.2 Basic Classes of Functions
    4. 1.3 Trigonometric Functions
    5. 1.4 Inverse Functions
    6. 1.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  3. 2 Limits
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 A Preview of Calculus
    3. 2.2 The Limit of a Function
    4. 2.3 The Limit Laws
    5. 2.4 Continuity
    6. 2.5 The Precise Definition of a Limit
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Chapter Review Exercises
  4. 3 Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Defining the Derivative
    3. 3.2 The Derivative as a Function
    4. 3.3 Differentiation Rules
    5. 3.4 Derivatives as Rates of Change
    6. 3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
    7. 3.6 The Chain Rule
    8. 3.7 Derivatives of Inverse Functions
    9. 3.8 Implicit Differentiation
    10. 3.9 Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  5. 4 Applications of Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Related Rates
    3. 4.2 Linear Approximations and Differentials
    4. 4.3 Maxima and Minima
    5. 4.4 The Mean Value Theorem
    6. 4.5 Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
    7. 4.6 Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
    8. 4.7 Applied Optimization Problems
    9. 4.8 L’Hôpital’s Rule
    10. 4.9 Newton’s Method
    11. 4.10 Antiderivatives
    12. Key Terms
    13. Key Equations
    14. Key Concepts
    15. Chapter Review Exercises
  6. 5 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 5.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 5.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 5.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 5.5 Substitution
    7. 5.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 5.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Chapter Review Exercises
  7. 6 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 6.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 6.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 6.5 Physical Applications
    7. 6.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 6.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 6.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 6.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Equations
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Chapter Review Exercises
  8. A | Table of Integrals
  9. B | Table of Derivatives
  10. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
  12. Index

2.1 A Preview of Calculus

  • Differential calculus arose from trying to solve the problem of determining the slope of a line tangent to a curve at a point. The slope of the tangent line indicates the rate of change of the function, also called the derivative. Calculating a derivative requires finding a limit.
  • Integral calculus arose from trying to solve the problem of finding the area of a region between the graph of a function and the x-axis. We can approximate the area by dividing it into thin rectangles and summing the areas of these rectangles. This summation leads to the value of a function called the integral. The integral is also calculated by finding a limit and, in fact, is related to the derivative of a function.
  • Multivariable calculus enables us to solve problems in three-dimensional space, including determining motion in space and finding volumes of solids.

2.2 The Limit of a Function

  • A table of values or graph may be used to estimate a limit.
  • If the limit of a function at a point does not exist, it is still possible that the limits from the left and right at that point may exist.
  • If the limits of a function from the left and right exist and are equal, then the limit of the function is that common value.
  • We may use limits to describe infinite behavior of a function at a point.

2.3 The Limit Laws

  • The limit laws allow us to evaluate limits of functions without having to go through step-by-step processes each time.
  • For polynomials and rational functions, limxaf(x)=f(a).limxaf(x)=f(a).
  • You can evaluate the limit of a function by factoring and canceling, by multiplying by a conjugate, or by simplifying a complex fraction.
  • The squeeze theorem allows you to find the limit of a function if the function is always greater than one function and less than another function with limits that are known.

2.4 Continuity

  • For a function to be continuous at a point, it must be defined at that point, its limit must exist at the point, and the value of the function at that point must equal the value of the limit at that point.
  • Discontinuities may be classified as removable, jump, or infinite.
  • A function is continuous over an open interval if it is continuous at every point in the interval. It is continuous over a closed interval if it is continuous at every point in its interior and is continuous at its endpoints.
  • The composite function theorem states: If f(x)f(x) is continuous at L and limxag(x)=L,limxag(x)=L, then limxaf(g(x))=f(limxag(x))=f(L).limxaf(g(x))=f(limxag(x))=f(L).
  • The Intermediate Value Theorem guarantees that if a function is continuous over a closed interval, then the function takes on every value between the values at its endpoints.

2.5 The Precise Definition of a Limit

  • The intuitive notion of a limit may be converted into a rigorous mathematical definition known as the epsilon-delta definition of the limit.
  • The epsilon-delta definition may be used to prove statements about limits.
  • The epsilon-delta definition of a limit may be modified to define one-sided limits.
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