Figure 1.6 In the example below, the scientific method is used to solve an everyday problem. Order the scientific method steps (numbered items) with the process of solving the everyday problem (lettered items). Based on the results of the experiment, is the hypothesis correct? If it is incorrect, propose some alternative hypotheses.
- Hypothesis (answer)
- There is something wrong with the electrical outlet.
- If something is wrong with the outlet, my coffeemaker also won’t work when plugged into it.
- My toaster doesn’t toast my bread.
- I plug my coffee maker into the outlet.
- My coffeemaker works.
- Why doesn’t my toaster work?
Figure 1.7 Decide if each of the following is an example of inductive or deductive reasoning.
- All flying birds and insects have wings. Birds and insects flap their wings as they move through the air. Therefore, wings enable flight.
- Insects generally survive mild winters better than harsh ones. Therefore, insect pests will become more problematic if global temperatures increase.
- Chromosomes, the carriers of DNA, separate into daughter cells during cell division. Therefore, DNA is the genetic material.
- Animals as diverse as humans, insects, and wolves all exhibit social behavior. Therefore, social behavior must have an evolutionary advantage.
Figure 1.16 Which of the following statements is false?
- Tissues exist within organs which exist within organ systems.
- Communities exist within populations which exist within ecosystems.
- Organelles exist within cells which exist within tissues.
- Communities exist within ecosystems which exist in the biosphere.