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Biology for AP® Courses

Science Practice Challenge Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesScience Practice Challenge Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
43.

The figure below shows a series of states for typical G protein signal transduction.

The figure shows a bilayer made up of molecules with a circular-shaped head and two tails. The two layers are arranged so the tails point toward each other. There is a key at the bottom of the figure with the following data: red rectangle is GDP, green oval is alpha subunit, purple rectangle is GTP, blue oval is beta subunit, peach vertical oval is signaling molecule, and peach horizontal oval is gamma subunit. Inside the bilayer, there are six green blobs that correspond to letters above the image. The letters follow a left to right progression: A arrow B arrow C arrow D arrow E arrow A. Attached to the bottom of Blob A is a green oval attached to a red rectangle, a blue oval, and a peach horizontal oval. Blob B has a vertical peach oval on the top and green oval, blue oval, and peach oval attached to the bottom. Blob C has a vertical peach oval on the top and a blue oval, peach horizontal oval, and a green oval attached to a purple rectangle on the bottom. Blob D has a peach vertical oval attached to the top and an unattached green oval, blue oval, and horizontal peach oval on the bottom. Blob E is the same as D with no vertical peach oval at the top. Underneath the bilayer are many purple rectangles and a few red rectangles.
Figure 9.19

Use this representation to describe the following stages in this signaling process:

  1. between A and B
  2. between B and C
  3. between C and D
  4. between D and E
  5. between E and A
44.
This figure displays the number of bound sites for protein binding sites, ranging from zero to one, over the concentration of ligands in a line graph. The line graphs are colored coded for different equilibrium constants for a ligand receptor system.

Tyrosine kinase receptors are pairs of proteins that span the plasma membrane. On the extracellular side of the membrane, one or more sites are present that bind to signaling ligands such as insulin or growth factors. On the intracellular side, the ends of peptide chains on each protein phosphorylate the other member of the pair, providing active docking sites that initiate cellular responses. The signal is switched off by dissociation of the ligand. For each ligand-receptor system, the equilibrium constant, k, controls the distribution of receptor-bound and unbound ligands. In systems with large values of k, a site is likely to be occupied, even at low concentrations of ligand. When k is small, the likelihood of binding is low, even when the concentration of ligand is high. To initiate a new stimulus response cycle for the receptor, the ligand must dissociate. Larger values of k mean that the receptor is more likely to be occupied and thus unavailable to bind another ligand.

Some ligand-binding systems have multiple binding sites. For example, hemoglobin binds four oxygen molecules, whereas myoglobin has only a single binding site. When multiple binding sites are present, the presence of an already-bound ligand can cooperatively affect the binding of other ligands on the same protein. For hemoglobin, the binding is positively cooperative. The affinity of oxygen for heme increases as the number of bound oxygen molecules increases.

  1. Describe the features in the graph above for hemoglobin that demonstrate positive cooperativity.
  2. The insulin receptor (IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that has two sites to which insulin can attach. IR is negatively cooperative. In the diagram above, the dependence of the bound fraction on available insulin is similar to the curve for k = 1 with negative cooperativity. Describe the features of this curve in the graph above that demonstrate negative cooperativity.
  3. When viewed from above the cell-surface, the representation shows receptors with one and two bound insulin molecules. Explain the negative cooperation for this receptor based on the free energy of conformational changes in the receptor-peptide chains.
  4. The figure shows three X-shaped structures. The structure on the left is just the X. The structure in the middle is an X with a red ball wedged in the middle of the two lowermost diagonal lines that form the X. The image on the right has two red balls – one wedged in the middle of the two lines in the upper half of the X and one wedged in the middle of the two diagonal lines in the lower half of the X.
  5. Explain the advantages in terms of selection of two-site binding with negative cooperation relative to one-site binding.
  6. Three binding curves with negative cooperativity and different values of k are shown on the graph. Describe conditions in which there is an advantage in having a low value of k with negative cooperativity.
45.

Organisms, including plants, have evolved chemical signaling pathways to direct physiological responses to environmental changes. Stomata are pores, typically on the underside of leaves that regulate CO2, O2, and H2O exchange between plants and the external environment. This interaction controls photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. The opening and closing of stomata are controlled by specialized guard cells that surround the stomatal pore. The osmotic state within the guard cells determines their turgor; when the guard cells are flaccid, stomata close. Turgor in the guard cells is regulated by the active transport of several ions, including K+ and H+, across the plasma membrane. Several environmental factors can cause stomatal closing: water deficit, darkness, microbes, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and other pollutants. Intracellular carbon dioxide concentration and light can trigger stomata to open.

The system is regulated by a phytohormone (plant hormone) called abscisic acid (ABA) and the amino acid precursor of the synthesis of a second phytohormone called ethylene (ACC). The second messengers NO and Ca2+ in the signal response to changes in the concentrations of these hormones activate transcription factors that affect ion transport across guard cell membranes. High CO2 levels and light also alter phytohormone concentrations.

A. Explain why plants must regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Explain how this response relates to the capture of free energy for cellular processes.

B. Construct an explanation in terms of the water potential, Y, for the efflux (outward flow) of H+ during water stress (drought).

C. Consider a scenario involving environmental factors, such as water stress and daylight, which have opposing effects on the opening and closing of stomata; stomata would be signaled to close under drought conditions and to open during photosynthesis. Pose two scientific questions regarding the response of the system, one involving the phytohormones ABA and ACC, and the second involving the concentration of second messengers.

D. The data shown in the table below were obtained by treating rockcress (Arabidopsis) with doses of ABA, ACC, and ABA plus ACC. Using the terms and and or, describe the expected and unexpected responses of the system just after 10 minutes and around 45 minutes, as displayed by these data.

The figure is a boxplot. Thee x-axis is Time in minutes. The Y axis is Aperture percent of control. The x-axis has tick marks for 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60. The y-axis has tick marks for 66, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 100. The key at the bottom has the following values: red triangle is A B A, purple circle is A C C, blue square is A B A plus A C C. Between 10 and 15 on the x-axis, there is a blue box in the middle of an approximate vertical range of  68 to 74, a purple circle in the middle of an approximate vertical range of  77 to 83, and a red triangle in the middle of an approximate vertical range of 83 and 88. At the 30 mark on the X axis, a red triangle is in the middle of an approximate vertical range between 66 and 72, a purple circle is inside an approximate vertical range of  68 to 73, and an aqua square is in the middle of an approximate vertical range of 74 and 79. In between 45 and 50 on the X-axis, a purple circle is in the middle of an approximate vertical range of 66 and 72, a red triangle is in the middle of an approximate vertical range of 68 to 73, and an aqua square is in the middle of an approximate vertical  range of 87 to 95. At the 60 point on the x-axis there is a red triangle in the middle of an approximate vertical range of 67 to  72,  a purple circle is in the middle of an approximate vertical range of 77 to 82, and an aqua square is in the middle of an approximate vertical  range of  83 to 87.
Figure 9.20

E. Researchers are investigating the interactions among multiple signaling pathways, a phenomenon referred to as “crosstalk.” The same second messengers, NO and Ca2+, are used in many different signaling pathways. Construct an explanation by analogy to other phenomena in which combining a small set of events (for example, 0 and 1 in a computer, the musical scale, or the R, G, and B components of a color) can lead to a vast assortment of outcomes.

46.

Construct a graphical representation of information as a function of time during the transduction of a signal along a signaling pathway.

A. Use your graph to describe trends in the amount of information rather than the actual magnitude. In sketching your graph, consider how the shape of the curve would change during these events:

  1. extracellular first messenger
  2. receptor binding and conformational changes
  3. release of second messengers
  4. cellular responses
  5. halt signal and degrade intermediates

B. Annotate your representation for a specific signaling system, such as the effect of epinephrine on the free energy released from glucose.

47.

Bacteria and fungi produce several extracellular chemicals, including antibiotics that affect other organisms in the environment. Antibiotics also are produced industrially in large bacteria-containing fermentation tanks. However, antibiotics that have been used by humans to control microbes are now found at subinhibitory concentrations in the environment. Low levels of antibiotics in the environment are mutagenic for bacteria and promote the development of antibiotic resistance.

Bacteria produce chemical signals that detect population density and regulate gene expression, a phenomenon called quorum sensing. Density is signaled by the extracellular concentration of small amino acid derivatives. To combat antibiotic resistance, an emerging strategy for the control of bacterial disease is quorum quenching.

A. Describe the advantage of antibiotics to the organisms that produce them.

B. Based on the name of the emerging strategy for controlling bacterial infections, describe a possible mechanism by which bacteria determine their population density. Justify the claim that quorum quenching may provide a more sustainable approach to disease control than the use of antibiotics.

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