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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
1.
C, H, O, and N are nutrients that are cycled through the Earth in different forms. Which of the following levels of ecology will include the study of nutrient cycling though the environment?
  1. organismal ecology
  2. population ecology
  3. community ecology
  4. ecosystem ecology
2.
Which of the following are arranged from least inclusive to most inclusive?
  1. population>ecosystem>community>biosphere
  2. ecosystem < population < biosphere < community
  3. biosphere < ecosystem < community < population
  4. population < community < ecosystem < biosphere
3.
An ecologist is studying the patterns on the wings of an endangered butterfly species that allow it to escape predators such as birds. This is an example of __.
  1. mimicry
  2. organismal ecology
  3. mutualism
  4. community ecology
4.
Each year, Lake Michigan beach visitors are warned of possible E.coli, which can cause illness. In order to understand how environmental conditions, both biotic and abiotic, affect E. coli risk, which type of individual should an infectious disease specialist collaborate with?
  1. an ecosystem ecologist
  2. a podiatrist
  3. a community ecologist
  4. a population ecologist
5.
Some bacterial species can use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. In this situation, the bacteria are a _____.
  1. biotic factor
  2. abiotic factor
  3. predator
  4. symbiotic partner
6.
Photosynthetic organisms are important to most ecosystems because they_____.
  1. synthesize organic compounds they obtain from decaying heterotrophs.
  2. can use carbon dioxide and sunlight and synthesize their own food.
  3. use wind energy to synthesize organic compounds.
  4. synthesize inorganic compounds from organic compounds.
7.
The study of population ecology focuses on ___.
  1. The number of individuals of one species in an area and how and why that number changes over time.
  2. The processes driving interactions within and among different species within an area.
  3. The adaptations that enable individuals to live in specific habitats.
  4. Plants and animals living in an enclosed area
8.
The study of the effect of abiotic factors such as rain and temperature on the distribution of living organisms is known as ___.
  1. community ecology
  2. biogeography
  3. ecosystem
  4. geography
9.
Many species of pine trees are found in different geographical locations in North America and Canada. This is because _____.
  1. they were not separated geographically over millions of years and did not evolve to be different species.
  2. plant breeders carried seeds to different areas.
  3. pollen from pollen tree was able to travel far.
  4. pine was present widely and in some areas they dried out.
10.
An ecologist hiking up a mountain may notice different biomes along the way due to changes in all of the following EXCEPT _____.
  1. elevation
  2. rainfall
  3. latitude
  4. temperature
11.
Temperate forests have plants of varying sizes. Understory plants in a temperate forest have adaptations to capture limited ____.
  1. water
  2. nutrients
  3. heat
  4. sunlight
12.
In which of the following bodies of water does temperature stratification not take place?
  1. estuaries
  2. lakes
  3. seas
  4. oceans
13.
Plants living in deserts have adaptations such as hair on leaves and a thick cuticle. What purpose do these adaptations serve?
  1. to conserve water
  2. to prevent exposure to sunlight
  3. to increase oxygen intake
  4. to decrease carbon dioxide intake
14.
Which of the following biomes would have maximum net primary production?
  1. deciduous forests
  2. deserts
  3. arctic tundra
  4. savannas
15.

When the Net Primary Productivity was measured in the presented graph, what was included in those measurements?

Bar graph titled “Net Primary Productivity of Selected Ecosystems (g/m2/year – amount of photosynthesis).” The y-axis ranges from 0 to 2500. The desert bar reaches 200. The boreal forest reaches 500. The cold deciduous forest reaches 1000. The tropical rain forest reaches 2000. The freshwater wetland bar is slightly higher than the tropical rainforest. The saltwater wetland bar is at 2250. The warm temperature mixed forest bar reaches 1000. The cultivated land reaches 750 and the grassland is slightly over 500.
 The figure shows various terrestrial biomes. Which of the following statements is true regarding net primary productivity in terrestrial biomes?

  1. Above and underground biomass are included in net primary productivity.
  2. Net primary productivity is the total amount of carbon fixed.
  3. Net primary productivity is the amount of carbon fixed minus the amount used during cellular respiration and includes only the aboveground biomass in terrestrial biomes.
  4. Net primary productivity refers to the amount of total amount of carbon fixed.
16.
Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of living things and the _____ that affect their distribution.
  1. Abiotic factors
  2. Biotic factors
  3. Biomes
  4. Conspecifics
17.
In which of the biomes are plants unable to grow because the soil is frozen most of the year?
  1. arctic tundra
  2. boreal forests
  3. grasslands
  4. chapparals
18.
In grasslands, forest fires are a common occurrence. Which of the following statements regarding grasslands is true?
  1. They have the ability to withstand fires.
  2. They have a well-developed root system, which allows them to regrow after a fire.
  3. Grasses are tall and only their top portions are destroyed.
  4. Trees shield some of the grass thus protecting it from fire.
19.
Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees. Which statement is correct about savannas?
  1. They receive abundant rainfall.
  2. The temperatures are cold throughout the year.
  3. They have relatively long dry seasons.
  4. Savannas are dominated by fluctuations in temperature.
20.
The boreal forest, also known as taiga or coniferous forest, is found south of the Arctic Circle and across most of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and northern Europe. What are the characteristics of the boreal forest?
  1. high temperature
  2. deciduous trees
  3. high humidity
  4. acidic soil
21.
The amount of sunlight and rainfall affects the growing season of plants in different biomes Which of the following biomes is characterized by short growing seasons?
  1. savanna
  2. temperate grasslands
  3. arctic tundra
  4. tropical wet forest
22.

The figure shows different zones present in the ocean. Which of the following statements about marine biomes is true?

The illustration divides the ocean into different zones based on depth. The top layer, called the photic zone, extends from the surface to 200 m. The aphotic zone extends from 200 to 4,000 m. They abyssal zone extends from 4,000 m to the ocean bottom. The ocean is also divided into zones based on distance from the shore. The intertidal zone extends from high to low tide. The neritic zone extends from the intertidal zone to the point at which ocean depth is about 200 m. At about this depth, the continental shelf ends in a steep slope to the ocean bottom. The oceanic zone is the area of open ocean. A thin section of the oceanic zone extending from top to bottom and adjacent to the continental shelf is labeled the benthic realm. All of the ocean’s open water is referred to as the pelagic realm, which is labeled on the left.

  1. The benthic zone includes the ocean’s open water and shore.
  2. The pelagic realm includes all of the ocean’s open water.
  3. The majority of the ocean includes the photic zone.
  4. The deepest zone of the ocean is known as the aphotic zone.
23.
Corals have a mutualistic relationship with photosynthetic algae in the photic zones of water. What purpose does this serve?
  1. Corals are able to derive their nutrition from the algae and thus survive in the nutritionally poor water.
  2. Corals are able to accumulate calcium carbonate from the algae.
  3. They can form coral reefs because of this association.
  4. The corals provide protection to the algae.
24.
Which of the following abiotic factors is most important for sustaining life in marine biomes?
  1. wind
  2. soil
  3. salt
  4. warmth
25.
There are several different marine zones. In which zone are organisms exposed to air and sunlight at low tide and are underwater most of the time, especially during high tide?
  1. intertidal zone
  2. neritic
  3. oceanic
  4. abyssal
26.
Which of the following photosynthetic organisms are more likely to grow in a lake as opposed to a river?
  1. fungi
  2. phytoplankton
  3. moss
  4. lichens
27.
Water flow can vary in wetlands. Freshwater marshes and swamps are characterized by _____.
  1. dry soil
  2. rapid water flow
  3. slow water flow
  4. irregular water flow
28.
Water bodies can differ in the amount of salt present. Which of the following is a characteristic of an estuary?
  1. a continuous body of water with high salinity
  2. an area where the salinity varies
  3. a body of water with low salinity
  4. a body of water with low salt entering land
29.
The earth’s geological past has witnessed many important events. Which of the following periods was associated with global warming?
  1. Permian period
  2. Cambrian period
  3. 2nd and 3rd century BC
  4. 20th century
30.
One of the indirect consequences of global warming has been ___.
  1. loss of biodiversity
  2. increase in temperature
  3. change in water quality
  4. increase in temperature tolerance of plants
31.
Which one of the following fuels was used extensively during the Industrial Revolution, leading to increases in levels of carbon dioxide?
  1. coal
  2. petroleum
  3. natural gas
  4. solar energy
32.
Global warming is due to many factors. Which of the following is known to change with CO2 concentration?
  1. solar intensity
  2. wind intensity
  3. temperature
  4. humidity
33.
All of the following are natural factors have led to slow increases in global temperatures except____.
  1. volcanic eruptions
  2. change in solar intensity
  3. earthquakes
  4. changes in the earth’s orbit
34.
Global temperatures have been steadily increasing since the Industrial Revolution largely as a result of ___.
  1. agricultural production
  2. burning of fossil fuels
  3. increase in movement of people
  4. use of pesticides
35.
Which of the following gases is not considered a significant contributor to global warming?
  1. carbon dioxide
  2. methane
  3. nitric oxide
  4. oxygen
36.
Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are considered greenhouse gases because___.
  1. They trap solar radiation released from the sun as it reaches the Earth’s surface, similar to the glass in a greenhouse.
  2. They are found mostly in green houses.
  3. These gases are essential for plant growth in a green house.
  4. They trap solar radiation, which is converted into thermal radiation on the Earth’s surface of which some is reradiated back into the atmosphere.
37.
The Medieval Climate Anomaly occurred between 900 and 1300 AD. Temperatures during this time were between 0.10 and 0.20 higher. This allowed _____.
  1. the Vikings to colonize Greenland
  2. large amounts of new technologies to be invented
  3. advances in agriculture
  4. harsh winters
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