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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
62.
(credit: modification of work by Lutz Becks/ResearchGate)

A species of microscoping animals (Brachionus calyciflorus) can reproduce both sexually and asexually. A research study explored how the fitness of the sexually-produced and asexually-produced offspring changed when the organism is adapting to a new environment. The graph shows the data of the study.

Make a claim based on this research.

  1. Sexually-reproduced offspring is more advantageous when adapting to new environments.
  2. Sexual reproduction evolved through adaptations to new environments.
  3. Sexually-reproduced offspring produce more offspring than asexually-reproduced offspring in most conditions.
  4. Sexual reproduction is more advantageous over asexual reproduction under most conditions.
63.
Compare and contrast sex determination in birds and mammals.
  1. In mammals, sex is determined by the presence of XX (homozygous) in males and XY (heterozygous) in females, while in birds, sex is determined by the presence of ZZ (homozygous) in females and ZW (heterozygous) in males.
  2. In mammals, sex is determined by the presence of XX (homozygous) in males and XY (heterozygous) in females, while in birds, sex is determined by the presence of ZW (heterozygous) in females and ZZ (homozygous) in males.
  3. In mammals, sex is determined by the presence of XX (homozygous) in females and XY (heterozygous) in males, while in birds, sex is determined by the presence of ZZ (homozygous) in females and ZW (heterozygous) in males.
  4. In mammals, sex is determined by the presence of XX (homozygous) in females and XY (heterozygous) in males, while in birds, sex is determined by the presence of ZW (heterozygous) in females and ZZ (homozygous) in males.
64.
(credit: modification of work by Lutz Becks/ResearchGate)

A species of microscoping animals (Brachionus calyciflorus) can reproduce both sexually and asexually. A research study explored how the fitness of the sexually-produced and asexually-produced offspring changed when the organism adapts to a new environment. The graph shows the data of the study.

Which option describes the data shown in this graph?

  1. Sexually-produced offspring was more fit throughout the observation.
  2. Asexually-produced offspring was more fit throughout the observation.
  3. Over time, the fitness of the sexually-produced offspring dropped.
  4. Over time, the fitness of the asexually-produced offspring dropped.
65.
In sexual reproduction, two cells of a species combine to form another cell. Why is this useful?
  1. It produces new combination of genes, which enables offspring to survive during environmental changes.
  2. It results in the production of many offspring in a short period of time.
  3. It does not involve gamete formation and requires less energy.
  4. It allows immobile organisms to reproduce in the absence of a mate.
66.
Spawning is often triggered by a signal such as water temperature or day length. What is an advantage of using this type of signal versus using individual courtship behaviors?
  1. It allows many individuals to spawn simultaneously without males and females having to choose individual mates.
  2. It is the only way that males and females can time gamete release simultaneously.
  3. These are the only types of signals that can be used.
  4. It increases the distance that gametes can travel.
67.
Refer to Figure 34.17
.
Which of the following statements about hormone regulation of the female reproductive cycle is true?
  1. LH and FSH are produced in the ovaries, and estradiol and progesterone are produced in the pituitary.
  2. Estradiol and progesterone secreted from the corpus luteum cause the myometrium to thicken.
  3. Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum.
  4. Secretion of GnRH by the hypothalamus is inhibited by high levels of estradiol, but stimulated by low levels of estradiol.
68.
Refer to Figure 34.19
.
Which of the following statements about the menstrual cycle is TRUE?
  1. Estrogen levels rise during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle and the secretory phase of the uterine cycle.
  2. Menstruation occurs much before LH and FSH levels peak.
  3. Menstruation occurs after progesterone levels rise.
  4. Progesterone levels rise before ovulation, while estrogen levels rise after.
69.
What stimulates Leydig cells in the testes to produce testosterone?
  1. FSH
  2. LH
  3. inhibin
  4. estrogen
MISSING EXERCISE: tag:apbio-ch34-ex092
70.
What is the nature of the oogonium and the secondary oocyte? Which process results in the formation of the secondary oocyte?
  1. A diploid oogonium forms a haploid oocyte by the process of mitosis.
  2. A haploid oogonium forms a diploid oocyte by the process of meiosis.
  3. A diploid oogonium forms a haploid oocyte by the process of meiosis.
  4. A haploid oogonium forms a haploid haploid oocyte by the process of meiosis.
71.
Why are the diploid zygotes produced after fertilization of sperm cells produced by spermatogenesis not similar?
  1. Their chromosome numbers are not the same.
  2. The size of the sperm produced are different.
  3. Some sperm may have a tail, whereas others may not.
  4. Crossing over occurs during spermatogenesis.
72.
The endocrine system incorporates feedback mechanisms that maintain homeostasis. Compare the following mechanisms to determine which demonstrates negative feedback by the reproductive system in mammals.
  1. Increasing levels of testosterone inhibit the production of GnRH, LH, and FSH by the hypothalamus and pituitary.
  2. LH and FSH stimulate the interstitial cells of Leydig to release testosterone in males.
  3. In females, the growing follicle starts releasing estrogen in increasing amounts.
  4. The corpus luteum releases progesterone after ovulation.
73.
(credit: modification of work by Sarah Mo/The NEI Connection)

The graph shows the ovarian reserve and the changing levels of hormones during menapause.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. During menapause the secretion of progesterone is increased.
  2. The ovaries contain a finite reserve of ovarian follicles in the body.
  3. New ovarian follicles are continuously produced through meiosis.
  4. During menapause the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is reduced.
74.
Describe the possible event that would occur if the corpus luteum did not produce increasing amounts of progesterone.
  1. The implanted zygote will not be able to derive sufficient nutrition from the endometrium.
  2. Even if fertilization is successful, the zygote may not be able to implant successfully. If it does manage to implant, it will not be able to derive sufficient nutrition from the myometrium.
  3. Even if fertilization is successful, the zygote may not be able to implant successfully. If it does manage to implant, it will not be able to derive sufficient nutrition from the endometrium.
  4. The contraction of the uterus during childbirth and lactation will not take place, causing problems and complications in the mother.
75.
What does a female contraceptive pill that inhibits the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus do?
  1. reduce the secretion of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland
  2. initiate ovulation
  3. increase the flow phase of the menstrual cycle
  4. increase the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries
76.
What do the rising levels of FSH and LH in the follicular phase cause?
  1. The follicles on the surface of the ovary start growing in preparation for ovulation.
  2. The endometrium starts to thicken.
  3. The corpus luteum starts secreting progesterone.
  4. One of the mature follicles bursts, releasing the egg.
77.
A couple has been trying to conceive for some time and goes to an endocrinologist for advice. If the endocrinologist diagnoses an obstruction in the oviducts of the female, what type of treatment can she recommend?
  1. opting for in vivo fertilization or ligation of the fallopian tubes surgically so that the tubes are sealed
  2. opting for in vivofertilization or removal of the obstruction surgically and then re-ligation of the ends of the fallopian tubes
  3. opting for in vitro fertilization or ligation of the fallopian tubes surgically so that the tubes are sealed
  4. opting for in vitro fertilization or removal of the obstruction surgically and then re-ligation of the ends of the fallopian tubes
78.
(credit: modification of work by Jennifer Knudtson, MD and Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD/Merck Manual)

The images and graphs show the hormone concentrations and the structure of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle.

Which hormone or hormones play the greatest role on rupture of the follicle?

  1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) only.
  2. Estrogen only.
  3. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
  4. Estrogen and progesterone.
79.
(credit: modification of work by Jennifer Knudtson, MD and Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD/Merck Manual)

The images and graphs show the hormone concentrations and the structure of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle.<,/p>

Which hormone plays the greatest role on the development of the uterine lining?

  1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  3. Estrogen.
  4. Progesterone.
80.
(credit: modification of work by Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, et al./BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The graph shows oxytocin (a hormone) levels during labor and the dilation of the cervix.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. The body secretes increasing amounts of oxytocin, which results in increasing amounts of cervix dilation.
  2. Oxytocin levels above a treshold is enought to cause increasing amounts of cervix dilation.
  3. Oxytocin levels have nor relation to the cervix dilation.
  4. Oxytocin levels below a treshhold cause increasing amounts of cervix dilation.
81.
Which hormone is released by the anterior pituitary as a part of the positive feedback loop between it and the ovary?
  1. Progesterone
  2. GnRH
  3. LH
  4. Estradiol
82.
(credit: modification of work by Saswati Sunderam, PhD, et al./CDC)

The graph shows US government data for outcomes of assisted reproductive technology procedures in 2016.

Make a claim based on this data.

  1. A large majority of embryo transfers result in a pregnancy.
  2. Most of the pregnancies successfully end in live birth.
  3. There is a mismatch in data where the number of infants is larger than number of live births.
  4. About 50% of the attempts fail at transfering an embryo.
83.
(credit: modification of work by Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, et al./BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, under CC BY 4.0 license)

The graph shows oxytocin levels during labor. Oxytocyin is a hormone that causes contraction of the muscles around the uterus.

Make a claim based on this graph.

  1. The muscles contract at the start of the labor and never relax. The single contraction gets gradually stronger.
  2. The muscles contract at the start of the labor and never relax. The single contraction gets gradually weaker.
  3. Contractions happen at intervals. Muscles contract for a few minutes and then relax. Each contraction is stronger than the previous one.
  4. Contractions happen at intervals. Muscles contract for a few minutes and then relax. Contractions change in magnitude.
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