Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo
Biology for AP® Courses

Review Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions

1 .
Which method of reproduction produces identical offspring and is most successful in a stable environment?
  1. asexual reproduction
  2. sexual
  3. conjugation
  4. inbreeding
2 .
Which method produces genetically-unique offspring?
  1. parthenogenesis
  2. budding
  3. fragmentation
  4. sexual reproduction
3 .
Which of the following statements is false?
  1. Budding is a method of asexual reproduction.
  2. Fragmentation is a method of asexual reproduction.
  3. Parthenogenesis is a type of sexual reproduction that produces diverse offspring.
  4. Binary fission is a method of asexual reproduction.
4 .
Sea stars are broken apart by workers to save the clams they feed on, and then thrown back into the ocean. Often the numbers of sea stars are seen to double after this. Give the reason why this happens.
  1. regeneration
  2. fragmentation
  3. budding
  4. the presence of suitable conditions
5 .
Which form of reproduction might be utilized by a sexually reproducing animal that has limited mobility?
  1. fragmentation
  2. budding
  3. hermaphroditism
  4. parthenogenesis
6 .
In sexual reproduction, gametes with either an X or Y chromosome are formed in males, whereas gametes in females contain a single X chromosome. What is the nature of both male and female gametes?
  1. diploid
  2. haploid
  3. homozygous
  4. heterozygous
7 .
External fertilization most commonly occurs in which type of environment?
  1. aquatic
  2. forests
  3. savanna
  4. steppe
8 .
Why is broadcast spawning considered advantageous?
  1. Production of many eggs increases the chance of fertilization.
  2. Production of many sperm increases the chance of fertilization.
  3. It results in mixing of genes and greater genetic diversity.
  4. Animals that are motile carry out this process.
9 .
Which term applies to egg development outside the female with nourishment derived from a yolk?
  1. oviparity
  2. viviparity
  3. ovoviparity
  4. ovovoparity
10 .
(credit: modification of work by Sasanami T, et al./Europe PMC)

The image shows the reproductive system of a female bird.

Which option describes how the egg is deposited outside?

  1. The egg is deposited outside from the vaginal opening.
  2. The egg is passed to the cloaca and is deposited from the cloacal opening.
  3. The egg is kept in side until it hatches. The bird gives live birth from the vaginal opening.
  4. The egg is kept in side until it hatches. The offpsring passes to cloaca and the bird gives live birth through the cloacal opening.
11 .
Which of the following structures is involved in mating in birds?
  1. cloaca
  2. spermatheca
  3. uterus
  4. coelom
12 .
The spermatheca, which is found in many insects, worms, and mollusks, is useful for _____.
  1. spermatogenesis
  2. sperm motility
  3. growth of embryos
  4. storing sperm and as a site for fertilization
13 .
Which part of the male reproductive system produces most of the semen?
  1. scrotum
  2. seminal vesicles
  3. seminiferous tubules
  4. prostate gland
14 .
How is an oocyte released from a human ovary so it can enter the oviduct?
  1. the beating action of the flagellum on the oocyte
  2. the force of the follicular ejection directing the oocyte into the oviduct
  3. the wavelike beating of cilia lining the oviduct
  4. muscular contraction of the ovaries
15 .
Which organ has the same embryonic origin as the penis?
  1. clitoris
  2. labia majora
  3. greater vestibular glands
  4. vagina
16 .
Which structure is only related to the male urinary system, as opposed to the male reproductive system?
  1. urinary bladder
  2. cowper’s gland
  3. bulbourethral gland
  4. urethra
17 .
How many eggs are produced as a result of one meiotic series of cell divisions?
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
18 .
Which of the following events activate the germ cells at puberty to produce spermatozoa?
  1. activation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  2. activation by increased hair growth
  3. increase in blood volume
  4. increase of secretion of testosterone
19 .
What stimulates Leydig cells in the testes to produce testosterone?
  1. FSH
  2. LH
  3. inhibin
  4. estrogen
20 .
In both males and females, the hormones FSH and LH play a critical role in the reproductive phase. What regulates the secretion of these hormones?
  1. GnRH
  2. estrogen
  3. progesterone
  4. inhibin
21 .
Which hormone prepares the endometrial lining of the uterus for potential implantation?
  1. testosterone
  2. estrogen
  3. GnRH
  4. progesterone
22 .
With the onset of menopause, the follicles stop responding to which of the following hormones?
  1. estradiol and progesterone
  2. progesterone and estrogen
  3. FSH and LH
  4. FSH and GnRH
23 .
After ovulation, increasing amounts of _____ cause the endometrium to start to thicken.
  1. fluid
  2. LH
  3. progesterone
  4. GnRH
24 .
What characterizes the acrosomal reactions?
  1. The sperm degrades the outermost layer of the egg to penetrate it.
  2. motility of the sperm
  3. fusion of the egg and sperm
  4. breakdown of the envelope covering the sperm head
25 .
What occurs as a result of fertilization of an egg and sperm?
  1. Fertilization restores diploidy.
  2. Fertilization always results in a viable embryo.
  3. Fertilization merges two diploid cells into a haploid cell.
  4. Fertilization precedes ovulation.
26 .
Which of the following statements regarding early embryonic stages is false?
  1. The endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm are germ layers.
  2. The trophoblast is a germ layer.
  3. The inner cell mass is a source of embryonic stem cells.
  4. The blastula is often a hollow ball of cells.
27 .
Gastrulation is the process in which the cells in the blastula rearrange themselves and form three layers of cells. Each layer will differentiate into a different organ system. At what point of development do the major organs begin to develop?
  1. fertilization
  2. first trimester
  3. second trimester
  4. third trimester
28 .
What happens to the number of cells during cleavage?
  1. increases
  2. decreases
  3. doubles with every cell division
  4. does not change significantly
29 .
The blastula stage is a mass of specialized cells. Of the following, which forms the liver cells?
  1. inner cell mass
  2. trophoblast
  3. blastula
  4. blastomere
30 .
Which germ layer forms the skin cells?
  1. endoderm
  2. ectoderm
  3. mesoderm
  4. trophoblast
31 .
What are the three phases of embryonic development in chronological order?
  1. blastula → gastrula → cleavage
  2. blastula → cleavage → gastrula
  3. cleavage → gastrula → blastula
  4. cleavage → blastula → gastrula
32 .
Which of the following does not describe axes of symmetry in animals?
  1. anterior-posterior
  2. dorsal-ventral
  3. upper-lower
  4. lateral-median
33 .
Which of the following statements best summarizes the factors controlling symmetry?
  1. Axis formation is genetically determined.
  2. Body symmetry is independent of genes.
  3. Body symmetry is determined at the blastula stage.
  4. Body symmetry is determined as the embryo grows in length.
34 .
The neural plate undergoes folding and movement of cells to form which structure?
  1. neural tube
  2. epidermis
  3. mesoderm
  4. neural cord
35 .
What is necessary for normal human fertilization to occur?
  1. Many eggs must be released.
  2. The uterus must be enlarged.
  3. One sperm needs to penetrate one egg.
  4. Secretion of pituitary FSH and LH must decrease.
36 .
Before pregnancy, progesterone is produced by the ovaries to thicken the endometrial lining and ensure pregnancy. During the third trimester of pregnancy, which organ produces progesterone?
  1. placenta
  2. endometrial lining
  3. chorion
  4. corpus luteum
37 .
Which hormone is primarily responsible for the contractions during labor?
  1. oxytocin
  2. estrogen
  3. β-HCG
  4. progesterone
38 .
What happens before the baby and placenta are expelled?
  1. Thinning and dilation of the cervix take place.
  2. There is increased blood flow to the baby.
  3. Enlargement of the uterus takes place.
  4. Increased production of estrogen occurs.
39 .
Which type of short-term contraceptive method is generally more effective than others?
  1. barrier
  2. hormonal implants
  3. natural family planning
  4. withdrawal
40 .
Which of the following best indicates that a female is ovulating?
  1. slight decrease in body temperature
  2. decrease in cervical volume
  3. more pliable cervical secretions
  4. change in breast size
41 .
Fertility is generally unaffected by_____.
  1. sexually transmitted diseases
  2. obstruction of reproductive tubes
  3. drug use
  4. genetic factors
42 .
What occurs in the procedure known as in vitro fertilization (IVF)?
  1. A sperm is injected into the egg externally.
  2. An egg is fertilized by the sperm internally in the oviduct.
  3. Eggs and sperm are combined externally and then implanted.
  4. Egg and sperm are combined externally and the resulting embryo is implanted.
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Apr 26, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.