Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Biology for AP® Courses

Review Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
1.
Why is the sodium ion at the highest concentration in extracellular fluid?
  1. Sodium diffuses freely through the cell membrane.
  2. The sodium/potassium pump removes sodium ions from the cell.
  3. The blood contains a high concentration of sodium.
  4. Sodium is actively taken up by the cells for use in the cytoplasm.
2.
What is given to a dehydrated human patient when he or she needs to be given fluids intravenously?
  1. Water, which is hypotonic with respect to body fluids.
  2. Saline at a concentration that is isotonic with respect to body fluids.
  3. Glucose because it is a non-electrolyte.
  4. blood
3.
What is the approximate osmolarity of body fluids?
  1. 100 mOsm
  2. 300 mOsm
  3. 1000 mOsm
  4. It is not constantly maintained.
4.
One milliequivalent of a ferric (III) ion (Fe+3) is equal to how many millimoles?
  1. 0.13
  2. 0.75
  3. 0.5
  4. 0.25
5.
What is the difference between an osmoregulator and an osmoconformer?
  1. Osmoregulators can change the osmotic pressure of their body fluids, while osmoconformers cannot.
  2. Osmoconformers can change the osmotic pressure of their body fluids, while osmoregulators cannot.
  3. Osmoregulators match the osmotic pressure of their cells with that of the environment, while osmoconformers do not.
  4. Osmoconformers match the osmotic pressure of their cells with that of the environment, while osmoregulators do not.
6.
Why does a salmon have to be an osmoregulator?
  1. They need to remove excess salt from ocean water.
  2. They move between areas of fresh and salt water.
  3. They travel for short stretches across the land between streams.
  4. Freshwater is osmotically neutral compared with their body fluids.
7.
What tends to happen to cells in a hypotonic environment?
  1. They remain the same size.
  2. They shrink due to water loss.
  3. They allow water to flow in and out at the same rate.
  4. They swell due to water gain.
8.
Which of the following is a function of the kidney?
  1. osmoregulation
  2. excretion of solid waste
  3. production of oxygen
  4. reabsorption of all nutrients
9.
The kidney is made up of over a million nephrons that give it a granular appearance. What is a nephron?
  1. a network of capillaries
  2. the cup-shaped chamber surrounding the glomerulus
  3. the functional unit of the kidney
  4. the bow-shaped artery at the base of medullary pyramids
10.
How do juxtamedullary nephrons differ from cortical nephrons?
  1. Juxtamedullary nephrons have a longer loop of Henle, allowing them to regulate urine concentration better than cortical nephrons.
  2. Juxtamedullary nephrons have a shorter loop of Henle, allowing them to regulate urine concentration better than cortical nephrons.
  3. Juxtamedullary nephrons have a larger glomerulus, allowing them to filter blood at a greater rate than cortical nephrons.
  4. Juxtamedullary nephrons have a smaller glomerulus, allowing them to filter blood at a greater rate than cortical nephrons.
11.
What is the casing around the glomerulus called?
  1. distal tubule
  2. loop of Henle
  3. Bowman’s capsule
  4. renal pyramid
12.
In the loop of Henle, the permeability of the membrane changes. The descending limb and ascending limb are permeable to which of the following, respectively?
  1. solutes and water
  2. proteins and solutes
  3. water and proteins
  4. water and solutes
13.
What do humans excrete, and how soluble is it compared to uric acid?
  1. urea, which is less soluble than uric acid
  2. urea, which is more soluble than uric acid
  3. ammonia, which is more soluble than uric acid
  4. ammonia, which is less soluble than uric acid
14.
Describe the network of blood vessels of the kidney.
  1. Blood enters and exits the kidney at the renal hilum, and the renal blood supply starts with the branching of the aorta into the renal arteries. They end with the exiting of the renal veins to join the superior vena cava. Each segmental renal artery formed by the splitting of the renal arteries splits again into interlobar arteries and enters the renal columns. These again split to form arcuate arteries, from which cortical radiate arteries radiate out and branch into many afferent arterioles that enter the capillaries supplying the nephrons. Veins trace the path of arteries and have similar names, except there are no segmental veins.
  2. Blood enters and exits the kidney at the renal hilum, and the renal blood supply starts with the branching of the aorta into the renal arteries. They end with the exiting of the renal veins to join the inferior vena cava. Each segmental renal artery formed by the splitting of the renal arteries splits again into interlobar arteries and enters the renal columns. These again split to form arcuate arteries, from which cortical radiate arteries radiate out and branch into many afferent arterioles that enter the capillaries supplying the nephrons. Veins trace the path of arteries and have similar names, except there are no segmental veins.
  3. Blood enters and exits the kidney at the renal hilum, and the renal blood supply starts with the branching of the aorta into the renal arteries. They end with the exiting of the renal veins to join the inferior vena cava. Each segmental renal artery formed by the splitting of the renal arteries splits again into interlobar arteries and enters the renal columns. These again split to form cortical radiate arteries that radiate out and branch into many afferent arterioles that enter the capillaries supplying the nephrons. Veins trace the path of arteries and have similar names, except there are no segmental veins.
  4. Blood enters and exits the kidney at the renal hilum, and the renal blood supply starts with the branching of the aorta into the renal arteries. They end with the exiting of the renal veins to join the inferior vena cava. Each segmental renal artery formed by the splitting of the renal arteries splits again into interlobar arteries and enters the renal columns. These again split to form arcuate arteries, from which cortical radiate arteries radiate out and branch into many afferent arterioles that enter the capillaries supplying the nephrons. Veins trace the path of arteries and have all the same names as the arteries following the same path.
15.
Which statement about contractile vacuoles in microorganisms is true?
  1. They exclusively perform an excretory function.
  2. They contain digestive enzymes.
  3. They originate from the cell membrane.
  4. They are only used for fluid storage.
16.
Some unicellular organisms, such as the amoeba, ingest food by endocytosis. The food vesicle fuses with a lysosome, which digests the food. Waste is excreted by which process?
  1. exocytosis
  2. filtration
  3. osmoregulation
  4. dilatation
17.
What does active transport of K+ in the Malpighian tubules ensure?
  1. Water leaves the Malpighian tubules.
  2. Water moves into the Malpighian tubules.
  3. K+ moves into the Malpighian tubules.
  4. K+ leaves the Malpighian tubules.
18.
Flame cells are primitive excretory organs found in which organisms?
  1. arthropods
  2. annelids
  3. mammals
  4. flatworms
19.
A cell has a malfunction in its contractile vacuoles. How would this affect the cell?
  1. The cell’s nephrons would no longer be able to reabsorb water.
  2. The cell’s cytoplasm would become very concentrated.
  3. The cell could no longer excrete waste products.
  4. The cell would uncontrollably take on water until it burst.
20.
Which toxic substance is formed by nitrogenous waste?
  1. chlorine
  2. potassium
  3. ammonia
  4. sodium
21.
What substance is secreted by most aquatic animals, and why?
  1. ammonia, because it can be easily diluted in an aquatic environment
  2. uric acid, because aquatic animals must preserve water
  3. urea, because ammonia needs to be converted before it can safely be stored in the body.
  4. chlorine, because it can easily be converted to a gas
22.
Which water-insoluble compound is similar to purines found in nucleic acids and tends to form a white paste or powder?
  1. urea
  2. guanine
  3. ammonia
  4. uric acid
23.
The urea cycle is also referred to as the _____ cycle.
  1. Krebs
  2. ornithine
  3. citric acid
  4. uric acid
24.
Renin is produced in the kidney nephrons and performs what function?
  1. increases vasoconstriction
  2. prevents loss of sodium
  3. increases blood pressure
  4. prevents water loss
25.
Which hormone elicits the “fight or flight” response, and under which circumstance is it released?
  1. anti-diuretic hormone, presence of alcohol in the blood
  2. atrial natriuretic peptide, high blood pressure
  3. aldosterone, low water content in the blood
  4. epinephrine, extreme stress
26.
What are the cause and treatment of Addison’s disease?
  1. an excess of uric acid in the blood, uric acid-dissolving drugs
  2. an inability to produce adh, drink excess water
  3. an excess of K+ secretion into the urine, take in excess potassium
  4. an inability to produce aldosterone, take in excess sodium
27.
How does atrial natriuretic peptide hormone act to lower blood pressure?
  1. vasoconstrictor
  2. vasodilator
  3. inhibitor
  4. vasopressin
28.
Which cells or organs secrete renin?
  1. granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
  2. the kidneys
  3. the nephrons
  4. water-reabsorbing cells of the collecting duct
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Mar 8, 2018 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.