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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
1.
Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?
  1. a cat
  2. a bee
  3. a human
  4. a bird
2.
What is an advantage of an open circulatory system?
  1. It uses less metabolic energy.
  2. It enables an organism to move faster.
  3. It is a more efficient way to move gases, nutrients, and waste around an organism’s body.
  4. It allows organisms to grow larger.
3.
Which of the following statements about circulatory systems is false?
  1. In closed circulatory systems, blood flows through vessels that are separate from the interstitial fluid of the body.
  2. The earthworm has a closed circulatory system.
  3. In an open circulatory system, hemolymph empties into the body cavity.
  4. Lobsters are organisms that have closed circulatory systems.
4.
Which of the following statements best defines the open circulatory system?
  1. In an open circulatory system, blood mixes with interstitial fluid in the hemocoel.
  2. In an open circulatory system, the blood is separated from the bodily interstitial fluid and contained blood vessels.
  3. Blood circulates unidirectionally from the heart around systemic circulatory root.
  4. An open circulatory system uses more energy than a closed circulatory system.
5.
A simple organism such as a jellyfish uses _____ to exchange gases and nutrients with their surrounding environment.
  1. blood
  2. diffusion
  3. atria
  4. blood vessels
6.
Fish and birds have closed circulation. They both have a systemic circulatory system, which delivers blood from the heart and out to the organs of the body. Birds differ from fish in that they have a circuit that leads through the lungs and back to the heart. What is this called?
  1. pulmonary circulatory circuit
  2. gill circulatory circuit
  3. pulmocutaneous circulatory circuit
  4. lymph circulatory circuit
7.

Two-column table: left head: Organism; right head: Method of circulation
 Organism A: Method: Closed- 2-chambered heart
 Organism B: Closed within 4-chambered heart
 Organism C: Open with some closed arterial vessels
 Organism D: Closed within 3-chambered heart
 Organism E: Open within hemocoel
 Organism F: Diffusion

A student is attempting to reorganize some preserved animals in the biology lab that have lost their labels. The student notices there are some notes on each jar, providing information on each animal’s classification. The student labels the unknown animals A-F and enters each animal’s circulatory system characteristics in a table. If the student wished to create a phylogeny of organisms A through F, which organism would likely be on the extreme right of the phylogenetic tree?

  1. organism A
  2. organism B
  3. organism E
  4. organism F
8.

Two-column table: left head: Organism; right head: Method of circulation
 Organism A: Method: Closed- 2-chambered heart
 Organism B: Closed within 4-chambered heart
 Organism C: Open with some closed arterial vessels
 Organism D: Closed within 3-chambered heart
 Organism E: Open within hemocoel
 Organism F: Diffusion

A student is attempting to reorganize some preserved animals in the biology lab that have lost their labels. The student notices there are some notes on each jar, providing information on each animal’s classification. The student labels the unknown animals A-F and enters each animal’s circulatory system characteristics in a table. If the student wished to create a phylogeny of organisms A through F, in what order would the organisms most likely appear on the tree, from left to right, and why?

  1. The order would be F, E, C, A, B, D as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly closed systems.
  2. The order would be B, D, A, C, E, F as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly open systems.
  3. The order would be F, E, C, A, D, B as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly closed systems.
  4. The order would be F, E, C, D, B, A as the general trend in circulatory system evolution is toward increasingly open systems.
9.
Differences in human blood types show how genetic differences have evolved over time, affecting red blood cell structure. What is the basis for blood type classifications?
  1. It is based on antigens made of carbohydrates, specifically glycoside and N-acetylglucosamine, found on the surface of red blood cells.
  2. It is based on antigens made of proteins, specifically glycolipids and glycoproteins, found on the surface of red blood cells.
  3. It is based on antigens made of proteins, specifically peripheral and integral proteins, found on the surface of the red blood cell.
  4. It is based on antigens made of lipids, specifically glycerophospholipids, found on the surface of red blood cells.
10.
If a person has blood type AB/Rh-, what antibodies will be found in the blood?
  1. A antibodies
  2. A antibodies and B antibodies
  3. Rh antibodies
  4. B antibodies
11.
Components found in human blood include white blood cells, red blood cells, and _______.
  1. platelets
  2. ostia
  3. hemolymph
  4. cardiomyocytes
12.
Up to four components can be derived from donated blood. One of those components is plasma. Which of the following is not a basic component of plasma?
  1. water
  2. proteins
  3. salts
  4. red blood cells
13.
Many platelets converge and stick together at a wound site, eventually forming a platelet plug, also called a fibrin clot. Platelets continue to arrive at the wound site until the plug is completely formed. Describe the feedback mechanisms taking place and predict what would likely happen if part of the platelet plug broke away before the wound was healed.
  1. A positive feedback loop, which would restart if part of the platelet plug broke away, calling more platelets to the site to repair the broken plug.
  2. A negative feedback loop, which would restart if part of the platelet plug broke away, calling more platelets to the site to repair the broken plug.
  3. A positive feedback loop, which would not restart if part of the platelet plug broke away.
  4. A negative feedback loop, which would not restart if part of the platelet plug broke away.
14.

Illustration of a wound site on the wall of a blood vessel with fibrinogen collecting at the site and a pointer labeling the area “clot.”

The diagram shows a fibrin clot forming within a blood vessel. What constituents of the blood interact to form the clot?

  1. red blood cells, serum, and vitamin K
  2. ribrin, megakaryocytes and blood proteins
  3. granulocytes, platelets and red blood cells
  4. platelets, fibrinogen, and clotting factors
15.

Red blood cells labeled O, A, B, AB; A has blue shapes on the surface, B has green shapes on the surface, and AB has blue and green shapes on the surface.

The diagram models the four different types of red blood cells in humans. Describe what is represented by the colored shapes on the surface of the cells and explain their function.

  1. Antigens, which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, which may be attacked by antibodies within the blood.
  2. Glycoproteins, which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, which may be attacked by antigens within the blood.
  3. Glycoproteins which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, which may be attacked by antibodies within the blood.
  4. Antibodies which identify the red blood cells as part of the body, as opposed to foreign red blood cells, causing neutralization of the foreign cells.
16.
Your heart is a pump that circulates blood and oxygen around your body. Which of the following statements about the circulatory system is false?
  1. Blood in the pulmonary veins is deoxygenated.
  2. Blood in the inferior vena cava is deoxygenated.
  3. Blood in the pulmonary artery is deoxygenated.
  4. Blood in the aorta is oxygenated.
17.
Which of the following statements about the heart is false?
  1. The mitral valve separates the left ventricle from the left atrium.
  2. Blood travels through the bicuspid valve to the left atrium.
  3. Both the aortic and the pulmonary valves are semilunar valves.
  4. The mitral valve is an atrioventricular valve.
18.
In a healthy heart, a heartbeat begins within an electrical signal from which part of the heart?
  1. bundle of His
  2. atrioventricular (AV) node
  3. sinoatrial (SA) node
  4. atrial diastole
19.
Describe the cardiac cycle and explain what drives it.
  1. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during systole and is filled with blood during diastole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from SA node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches AV node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the bundle of His, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. Purkinje fibers conduct impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
  2. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during diastole and is filled with blood during systole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from SA node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches AV node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the bundle of His, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. Purkinje fibers conduct the impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
  3. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during systole and is filled with blood during diastole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from AV node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches SA node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the bundle of His, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. Purkinje fibers conduct impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
  4. The heart contracts to pump blood through the body during systole and is filled with blood during diastole. An electrical charge spontaneously pulses from SA node causing two atria to contract. The pulse reaches AV node where it pauses before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. It enters the Purkinje fibers, then to left and right bundle branches extending through the interventricular septum. The bundle of His conduct impulse from the apex up the ventricular myocardium, causing the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the atria to empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles pump out the blood.
20.
Compare and contrast veins and arteries.
  1. Both veins and arteries have three distinct layers. Veins take blood away from the heart and arteries bring blood back to the heart.
  2. Both veins and arteries have three distinct layers. Arteries take blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart.
  3. Both veins and arteries have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Arteries take blood away from the heart and veins bring blood back to the heart.
  4. Both veins and arteries have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins take blood away from the heart and arteries bring blood back to the heart.
21.

Illustration of human heart with the left atrium and ventricle shaded red and the right atrium and ventricle shaded blue; the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node are labeled, with the sinoatrial node positioned at the top of the right atrium and the atrioventricular nose at the juncture of the right atrium and ventricle on the exterior of the heart. The Purkinje fiber are depicted between the right and left ventricles branching mid-way down.

The diagram below shows the neural structures that control and coordinate the beating of the heart. How would the cardiac cycle be affected if neural signals were blocked within the Purkinje fiber?

  1. The atria and ventricles would contract at the same time.
  2. The ventricles would not contract.
  3. The atria would contract first, followed by the ventricles.
  4. Only the left atrium would contract.
22.

Illustration of human heart with the left atrium and ventricle shaded red and the right atrium and ventricle shaded blue; the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node are labeled, with the sinoatrial node positioned at the top of the right atrium and the atrioventricular nose at the juncture of the right atrium and ventricle on the exterior of the heart. The Purkinje fiber are depicted between the right and left ventricles branching mid-way down.

The diagram shows the neural structures that control and coordinate the beating of the heart. Explain fully how the cardiac cycle would be affected if the signal was blocked at the atrioventricular node and why.

  1. The atria would contract, but the ventricles would not, because the atrioventricular node passes signals to the Purkinje fibers, which allow the ventricles to contract.
  2. The ventricles would contract, but the atria would not, because the atrioventricular node passes the signal to the Purkinje fibers, which allow the ventricles to contract.
  3. The atria would contract, but the ventricles would not, because the atrioventricular node passes the signal to the Purkinje fibers, which allow the atria to contract.
  4. The ventricles would contract, but the atria would not, because the atrioventricular node passes the signal to the Purkinje fibers, which causes the atria to contract.
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