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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
18.
If a neuron has damaged synapses, what would be impaired?
  1. Integration of signals from several synapses
  2. Speed of signal transduction
  3. Receiving signals from other neurons
  4. Ability to recharge electrical signals
19.
Signal transmission from one neuron to another requires a series of processes pertaining to different components of each neuron. What happens at the axon terminals to facilitate signal transmission to another neuron?
  1. Chemicals released at the axon terminals transmit signals through synapses into other neurons via the second neuron’s dendrites.
  2. Chemicals released at the axon terminals transmit signals through synapses into other neurons via the second neuron’s axons.
  3. Chemicals released at the dendrites transmit signals through synapses into other neurons via the second neuron’s axon terminal.
  4. Chemicals released at the axon terminals transmit signals directly into other neurons via the second neuron’s axons.
20.

This figure shows a malformed neuron. Why would this neuron be nonfunctional?

Illustration shows a neuron malformed in that it is lacking axon terminals.

  1. This neuron would not be able to receive signals.
  2. This neuron would not be able to recharge the signal.
  3. This neuron would not be able to integrate information from numerous synapses.
  4. This neuron would not be able to send signals.
21.

Illustration shows a network of neurons.

This figure shows the transmission of a signal among a network of neurons. How is a signal transferred from one neuron to another?

  1. A signal is released from an axon, passes through the axon terminal, and synapses with dendrites. Dendrites receive the signal, which passes through the soma. Multiple signals from a single synapse are integrated at the axon hillock, which then passes the signal into the axon, where the signal is transferred to another cell.
  2. A signal is released from axon terminal, passes through the axon, and synapse with dendrites. Dendrites receive the signal, which passes through the soma. Multiple signals from multiple synapses are integrated at the axon hillock, which then passes the signal into the axon, where the signal is transferred to another cell.
  3. A signal is released from an axon and passes through the axon terminal, which synapses with dendrites. Dendrites receive the signal as it passes through the soma. Multiple signals from multiple synapses are integrated at the axon hillock, which then passes the signal into the axon, where the signal is transferred to another cell.
  4. A signal is released from the axon terminal, passes through the axon, and synapse with dendrites. Dendrites receive the signal as it passes through the soma. Multiple signals from a single synapse are integrated at the axon hillock, which then passes the signal into the axon, where the signal is transferred to another cell.
22.
Transmission of signals between two neurons requires proper communication between neurons. Dendrites are a component of many neurons that facilitate signal reception. Which of the following is true of dendrites?
  1. All neurons have several dendrites for signal reception.
  2. Dendritic spines decrease possible synaptic connections.
  3. Dendrites carry the signal to the soma.
  4. Chemical release at dendrites allows signal communication to other cells.
23.

Table showing the ion concentrations of ions numbered 1, 2, and 3 and organic anions outside and inside neurons. Ion 1 has a ratio of outside to inside of 12, ion 2 has a ratio of outside to inside of 0.026, and ion 3 has a ratio of outside to inside of 30.

Resting membrane potential has a negative charge. Which ions correspond to each row of data in the chart?

  1. Ion 1: Cl-, Ion 2: Na+, Ion 3: K+
  2. Ion 1: Na+, Ion 2: K+, Ion 3: Cl-
  3. Ion 1: K+, Ion 2: Na+, Ion 3: Cl-
  4. Ion 1:Cl-, Ion 2: K+, Ion 3: Na+
24.
Voltage-gated ion channels are essential for producing an action potential and returning a neuron to its resting state. Why would it be impossible to trigger an action potential without voltage-gated ion channels?
  1. The cell would not undergo depolarization, which is necessary to fire an action potential and then return the cell to the resting state.
  2. The cell would not undergo repolarization, which is necessary to fire an action potential and then return the cell to the resting state.
  3. The cell would not undergo depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization, which are necessary to fire an action potential and then return the cell to the resting state.
  4. The cell would not undergo depolarization and hyperpolarization, which are necessary to fire an action potential and then return the cell to the resting state.
25.

Graph showing relationship of membrane potential (y-axis) to time (x-axis). Resting potential begins earliest in time at about –70 mV, threshold of excitation occurs next, at about –55 mV, peak action potential occurs at about 30 mV, repolarization is noted at slightly less than 10 mV, and then hyperpolarization is noted at around –80 mV.

When an action potential is fired, what happens immediately after the peak action potential occurs?

  1. Na+ channels open.
  2. K+ channels open.
  3. K+ channels close.
  4. Na+/K+ transporter restores resting potential.
26.
Potassium channel blockers, such as amiodarone and procainamide, which are used to treat abnormal electrical activity in the heart, impede the movement of K+through voltage-gated K+channels. Which part of the action potential would potassium channels affect, and why?
  1. Depolarization after peak action potential would be affected because that is the point when K+ begins to leave the cell.
  2. Repolarization after peak action potential would be affected because that is the point when K+ begins to leave the cell.
  3. Repolarization after peak action potential would be affected because that is the point when K+ begins to enter the cell.
  4. Polarization after peak action potential would be affected because that is the point when K+ begins to enter the cell.
27.

Illustration of a nerve cell including soma, axon, and axon terminal, with three panels below describing direction of travel of an action potential through a neuron. In the topmost diagram, the cell is depolarized at the soma. In the middle diagram, the cell is depolarizing along the axon and repolarization is occurring behind depolarization. In the third diagram, the cell is depolarizing along the axon and repolarization is occurring behind depolarization, with resting occurring behind repolarization.

This figure shows the transfer of an action potential through a neuron. What is occurring in panel 3?

  1. Depolarization occurs closest to the cell body.
  2. The first part of the neuron cannot fire another action potential.
  3. The first part of the neuron can fire another action potential.
  4. Sodium channels have closed.
28.

Illustration shows a nervous system “gate” opening and Na+ entering the cell.

This figure depicts an essential component of signal formation and transmission in neurons. What is happening in this figure?

  1. A nerve impulse opens the Na+ channel, which makes Na+ enter the cell and depolarizes the membrane.
  2. A nerve impulse opens the Ca+2 channel, which makes Ca+2 enter the cell and depolarizes the membrane.
  3. A nerve impulse opens the Na+ channel, which makes Na+ enter the cell and repolarizes the membrane.
  4. A nerve impulse opens the K+ channel, which makes K+ enter the cell and polarizes the membrane.
29.
Chemical and electrical synapse are two mechanisms by which signals can be transferred between neurons. Which of the following occurs during chemical synapse?
  1. Repolarization at the presynaptic membrane
  2. Calcium influx causes synaptic vesicles to fuse to the membrane
  3. Neurotransmitters diffuse out of gap junctions
  4. Neurotransmitters bind to synaptic vesicles
30.
Chemical synapse is a multiple-step process in which neurotransmitters undergo transfer and binding to different parts of the cell. What happens when a neurotransmitter binds to ligand-gated ion channels?
  1. The ligand-gated ion channels open.
  2. The presynaptic neuron reuptakes the neurotransmitter.
  3. The neurotransmitter diffuses away from the synapse.
  4. The neurotransmitter is enzymatically degraded.
31.
Different components of the brain control different parts of the body. One important part of the brain is the occipital lobe. What might happen if an individual’s occipital lobe was damaged?
  1. The individual would not feel hot or cold.
  2. The individual would be unable to form new memories.
  3. The individual would be unable to recognize certain objects.
  4. The individual would have no sense of smell.
32.
Both cerebral hemispheres are essential for proper body function. However, the left cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body, whereas the right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body. Why is this the case?
  1. The descending neural connections are not switched in the brainstem, which means that the neural connections of the left hemisphere are transmitted to the right side of the body and vice versa.
  2. The ascending neural connections are not switched in the brainstem, which means that the neural connections of the left hemisphere are transmitted to the right side of the body and vice versa.
  3. The descending neural connections are switched in the brainstem, which means that the neural connections of the left hemisphere are transmitted to the right side of the body and vice versa.
  4. The ascending neural connections are switched in the brainstem, which means that the neural connections of the left hemisphere are transmitted to the right side of the body and vice versa.
33.

Illustration shows differing complexity in cortical folds in brains of rat, cat, chimpanzee, human, and dolphin (from least complex to most complex)

If an increased number of folds in the cortical sheets of the brain is associated with increased social complexity, which of the following animals has the greatest social complexity?

  1. Rat
  2. Dolphin
  3. Chimpanzee
  4. Cat
34.

Illustration of a cross-section of the spine from the top showing white matter, gray matter, dorsal horn, ventral horn.

This image shows a cross section of the spinal column. How does gray matter facilitate communication along the spinal column?

  1. All myelin sheaths are located in the gray matter, which transmit signals along the brain and spinal cord through the gray matter.
  2. All synapses are located in the gray matter, which transmit signals along the brain and spinal cord through the gray matter.
  3. All synapses are located in the gray matter, which transmit signals along the spinal cord through the gray matter.
  4. All dendrites are located in the gray matter, which transmit signals along the spinal cord through the gray matter.
35.

Illustration shows the arrangement of the motor cortex of the right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex: clockwise from upper left to lower right: toes, ankles, knees, hips, trunk, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, thumbs, neck, eyebrows and eyelids, eyeballs, face, lips, jaw, tongue, salivation, chewing, swallowing.

This figure depicts the parts of the body that are controlled by different parts of the motor cortex. What can be inferred about the organization of the motor cortex relative to the organization of muscles in the body?

  1. The motor cortex is found throughout the body.
  2. Motor cortex neurons are generally located near neurons that control nearby body parts.
  3. Motor cortex neurons control speaking and processing what an individual reads.
  4. The motor cortex controls involuntary muscle movements.
36.

Illustration is overhead view showing a person with completely separated brain hemispheres. There is a ring to the right of the man and a key to the left. The man is thinking of picking up the ring but his had instead picks up the key.

This figure represents a split-brain individual processing information. What has happened to the brain of this individual? Why does the processing of information occur as depicted?

  1. The parietal lobe has been cut, which severs the ability of the left hemisphere from communicating but increases the ability of the right hemisphere.
  2. The corpus callosum has been cut, which severs the ability of the left hemisphere from communicating but increases the ability of the right hemisphere.
  3. The frontal lobe has been cut, which severs the ability of the left and right hemispheres to communicate.
  4. The corpus callosum has been cut, which severs the ability of the left and right hemispheres to communicate.
37.
The thalamus is part of the brain that is involved in various functions in the human body. What might result from the damage of an individual’s thalamus?
  1. Insomnia
  2. Lack of interest in everything
  3. Lack of fear
  4. Inability to learn new motor tasks
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