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Biology for AP® Courses

Review Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions

1 .
The pleural cavity is part of which cavity?
  1. dorsal
  2. thoracic
  3. abdominal
  4. pericardial
2 .
A plane that divides an animal into dorsal and ventral portions is the ____ plane.
  1. sagittal
  2. midsagittal
  3. coronal
  4. transverse
3 .
What is the term for a hard covering or shell that provides protection and muscle attachment?
  1. apodeme
  2. fusiform
  3. exoskeleton
  4. endotherm
4 .
Which organism has a fusiform shape?
  1. elephant
  2. dolphin
  3. spider
  4. human
5 .
Which type of animal maintains a constant internal body temperature?
  1. endotherm
  2. ectotherm
  3. poikilotherm
  4. fusiform
6 .
Smaller endothermic animals have _______ surface area for their mass compared with larger endothermic animals.
  1. equal
  2. greater
  3. less
  4. no
7 .
What is the term for epithelial cells that are composed of multiple layers?
  1. simple
  2. stratified
  3. squamous
  4. transitional
8 .
Which type of epithelial cell is best adapted to aid diffusion?
  1. squamous
  2. cuboidal
  3. columnar
  4. transitional
9 .
What purpose is served when osteoclasts break down bone?
  1. deposition of bone material into the bone matrix
  2. facilitation of osteoclast persistence without using excess energy
  3. providing access to calcium stored in the tissue
  4. facilitation of compact bone structure
10 .
Plasma is the ____.
  1. fibers in the blood
  2. matrix of the blood
  3. cell that phagocytizes bacteria
  4. cell that functions in response to antigens
11 .
Why is it necessary for most muscle cells to be under voluntary control?
  1. to facilitate response to local conditions of tissues
  2. to facilitate movement of bone
  3. to speed up or slow down the autonomic nervous system
  4. to facilitate movement of internal organs
12 .
Cardiac muscle contains specialized regions along the plasma membrane called intercalated discs. What is the role of intercalated discs?
  1. efficiently pass electrical impulses between cardiac cells
  2. facilitate immune response to foreign antigens
  3. cushion body organs from damage
  4. keeps blood vessels in place
13 .
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus is the ____.
  1. axon
  2. dendrite
  3. cell body
  4. oligodendrocyte
14 .
Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes manufacture a lipid called myelin. Which statement best describes the function of this lipid?
  1. regulates the chemical environment
  2. sends input
  3. receives input
  4. improves signal transfer efficiency
15 .
Animals maintain an overall steady state of internal conditions by ___.
  1. ectothermy
  2. homeostasis
  3. basal metabolic rate
  4. standard metabolic rate
16 .
To what does the term “equilibrium” refer in the context of organismal homeostasis?
  1. control mechanisms that amplify a response
  2. control mechanisms that increase or decrease a stimulus
  3. the target point in homeostasis
  4. body functions are maintained within a given range
17 .
What type of feedback loop pushes an organism’s physiology further away from its normal setpoints?
  1. positive feedback loop
  2. negative feedback loop
  3. set point
  4. receptor
18 .
When faced with a sudden drop in environmental temperature, an endothermic animal will ____.
  1. experience a substantial drop in its body temperature
  2. find a warm rock on which to bask
  3. increase muscle activity to generate heat
  4. increase fur or fat to increase insulation
19 .
Homeostasis is primarily controlled by _______ feedback loops.
  1. positive
  2. negative
  3. acclimatization
  4. receptor
20 .
Which is an example of negative feedback?
  1. lowering of blood glucose after a meal
  2. blood clotting after an injury
  3. lactation during nursing
  4. uterine contractions during labor
21 .
Which method of heat exchange occurs during direct contact between the source and the animal?
  1. radiation
  2. evaporation
  3. convection
  4. conduction
22 .
(credit: modification of work by Jordan Hawes/Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 4.0)

This graph shows the body temperature against ambient temperature for two animals that live in the same environment.

What can be said about these animals?

  1. Both animals are ectotherms.
  2. Both animals are endotherms.
  3. Animal 1 is an ectotherm. Animal 2 is an endotherm.
  4. Animal 1 is an endotherm. Animal 2 is an ectotherm.
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