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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
31.

What evolutionary question is better addressed by the fig-shaped evolutionary tree in Figure 20.17, as opposed to the more typical, single-trunk phylogenetic tree in Figure 20.2?

  1. What was the single organism from which all other forms of life on Earth arose?
  2. Did animals evolve from fungi?
  3. In which species of eukaryote did chloroplasts first appear?
  4. Were chloroplasts and mitochondria transferred to eukaryotic cells through horizontal gene transfer?
32.
A phylogenetic tree with a time scale below illustrates relationships between plant species. The horizontal time scale along the bottom includes the following segments labeled in units if M Y A: below 488.3 Cambrian; 388.3 to 443.7 Ordovician; 443.7 to 416.0 Silurian; 416.0 to 459.2 Devonian; 459.2 to present Carbonifrous. The tree has several colored regions representing a rectangular region with three surrounding regions that each form left and lower boundaries of the preceding region: a rectangular region at the upper right labeled P-type tracheids; a region to its left and below labeled G-type tracheids; a box to the left and below of G-type tracheids labeled S-type trachieds; and an outer box to the left and below labeled Hydroids. All nodes on the tree are labeled for reference only. The tree begins with a short horizontal piece on the left forming the root. At the first node, in the Cambrian, this piece meets a vertical piece that meets a tan horizontal line below that extends from the Cambrian to Rhodophytes with an open circle near the end of the first quarter of the Carboniforous. The same vertical line from the first line extends up to a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at at second node. This vertical line meets a green line below in the Cambrian that ends at Chlorophytes with an open circle near the end of the first quarter of the the Carboniferous.   The same vertical line from node 2 meets a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 3. This node is accompanied by text reading, Sporopollenin biosynthesis. The vertical line from node 3 is just before the midpoint of the Ordovician and meets a light green line below that ends at the Charophytes with a white circle slightly earlier in the Carboniferous than the Chlorophytes and Rhodophytes. The vertical line from node 3 meets a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 4 midway through the Ordovician. This node is labeled Land colonization, Phenylpropnaoid metabolism, Flavonoid biosynthesism Lignan biosynthesis. The vertical line runs along the left end of a tan box. The vertical line meets a horizontal line below that branches to form three lineages within the tan box labeled Bryophytes. The horizontal line meets an orange vertical line at node 5. The lower end of this vertical line meets a horizontal orange line to the liverworts and a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line that meets horizontal lines to the hornworts above and liverworts below. The hornworts and liverworts have open circles near the beginning o the Carboniferous period and the mosses have an open circle right above the line marking the start of the Carboniferous period. A vertical line to the right labels the hornworts, mosses, and liverworts as bryophytes. The vertical line through node 5, which extends down to branch into the bryophyte lineages, extends up to meet a horizontal line that passes through the tan region labeled Hydroids to meet a vertical line at node 6 in the second half of the Silurian. This vertical line meets a short blue line to Aglaophyton with a circle containing a question mark in the Devonian period and within the Hydroids. A vertical blue bar to the right accompanies text labeled Protracheophytes. The vertical line from node 6 extends upward into a blue region labeled G-type tracheids to meet a short horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 7 near the end of the Silurian. This vertical line is near the end of the Silurian and is labeled, Lignin biosynthesis, Diversification of peroxidases. Node 7 is located within a tan “L”-shaped region between the Hydroids and other groups above and to its right. The vertical line from node 7 meets a purple horizontal line below near the end of the Silurian in the S-type tracheids region and this purple line extends right to end at the Rhyniophytes with an open circle labeled question mark near the start of the Carbnoiferous. The upper half of the vertical line from node 7 extends into the region to the upper right of the S-type tracheids. This region is labeled G-type tracheids. The upper half of the vertical line meets a short vertical line that meets node 8 in the early Devonian. The lower half of the vertical line from node 8 meets a short horizontal line that meets a blue vertical line at node 9 that begins a blue series of branching within the G-type tracheids near the end of the Silurian. All of these blue lineages are labeled Lycophytes. The blue vertical line meets a blue horizontal line below that extends horizontally to Zosterophyllys with a circle containing a question mark near the start of the Carboniferous. The blue vertical line extends upward to meet a horizontal line almost midway through the Devonian that meets a vertical line at node 10 that meets a horizontal line below to Lycopodium with a brown circle in the first quarter of the Carboniferous and a horizontal line above that meets vertical lines to Isoetes and Selaginella. Isoetes ends at a circle containing a question mark just before the start of the Carboninferous. Selaginells ends with a red filled circle just after the start of the Carboniferous and with a line extending right to the vertical blue line labeled Lycophytes. The vertical line from node 8 extends up to a short horizontal line in the region labeled P-type tracheids. This line meets a vertical line just after the start of the Devonian that meets a light tan line that meets a light tan horizontal line below to Monilophytes below and a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at three-quarters of the way across the Devonian to meet horizontal lines above and below to a red line to Angiosperms and a dark tan line to Gymnosperms, respectively. The Monilophytes and Gymnosperms both end at brown filled circles in the Carbiniferous, with the Gymnosperms slightly later than the Monilophytes. The Angiosperms end at a red filled circle at about the same time as the Monilophytes. Lines extend horizontally from the circles at the ends of the Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and Monilophytes to a vertical tan bar labeled Duphyllophytes. A line from the red circle of Selaginalla extends right to a blue vertical line labeled Lycophytes that extends along the length of the box labeled G-type tracheids. The Rhyniophytes, Lycophytes, and Euphyllophytes are all included in a light green vertical linen labeled Tracheophyhytes. Lines extend from specific groups to illustrations. These illustrations are labeled as follows: Angiosperms: A plant with yellow flowers; Gymnosperms: needles of a pine tree; Monilophytes: three groups of many small leaflets extending from a main axis and narrowing toward the tip; Selaginella: Many small, irregularly positioned lobed leaves; mosses: a clump of green on a rock; and Charophytes: four structures extending from a wider base, each with multiple green branching structures extending from each.
(credit: modification of work by Jing-Ke Weng/ResearchGate)

The phylogenetic tree shows the relationship between plants.

What is the closest relative of hornworts?

  1. Liverworts.
  2. Mosses.
  3. Protracheophytes.
  4. Charophytes.
33.
A phylogenetic tree with a time scale below illustrates relationships between plant species. The horizontal time scale along the bottom includes the following segments labeled in units if M Y A: below 488.3 Cambrian; 388.3 to 443.7 Ordovician; 443.7 to 416.0 Silurian; 416.0 to 459.2 Devonian; 459.2 to present Carbonifrous. The tree has several colored regions representing a rectangular region with three surrounding regions that each form left and lower boundaries of the preceding region: a rectangular region at the upper right labeled P-type tracheids; a region to its left and below labeled G-type tracheids; a box to the left and below of G-type tracheids labeled S-type trachieds; and an outer box to the left and below labeled Hydroids. All nodes on the tree are labeled for reference only. The tree begins with a short horizontal piece on the left forming the root. At the first node, in the Cambrian, this piece meets a vertical piece that meets a tan horizontal line below that extends from the Cambrian to Rhodophytes with an open circle near the end of the first quarter of the Carboniforous. The same vertical line from the first line extends up to a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at at second node. This vertical line meets a green line below in the Cambrian that ends at Chlorophytes with an open circle near the end of the first quarter of the the Carboniferous.   The same vertical line from node 2 meets a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 3. This node is accompanied by text reading, Sporopollenin biosynthesis. The vertical line from node 3 is just before the midpoint of the Ordovician and meets a light green line below that ends at the Charophytes with a white circle slightly earlier in the Carboniferous than the Chlorophytes and Rhodophytes. The vertical line from node 3 meets a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 4 midway through the Ordovician. This node is labeled Land colonization, Phenylpropnaoid metabolism, Flavonoid biosynthesism Lignan biosynthesis. The vertical line runs along the left end of a tan box. The vertical line meets a horizontal line below that branches to form three lineages within the tan box labeled Bryophytes. The horizontal line meets an orange vertical line at node 5. The lower end of this vertical line meets a horizontal orange line to the liverworts and a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line that meets horizontal lines to the hornworts above and liverworts below. The hornworts and liverworts have open circles near the beginning o the Carboniferous period and the mosses have an open circle right above the line marking the start of the Carboniferous period. A vertical line to the right labels the hornworts, mosses, and liverworts as bryophytes. The vertical line through node 5, which extends down to branch into the bryophyte lineages, extends up to meet a horizontal line that passes through the tan region labeled Hydroids to meet a vertical line at node 6 in the second half of the Silurian. This vertical line meets a short blue line to Aglaophyton with a circle containing a question mark in the Devonian period and within the Hydroids. A vertical blue bar to the right accompanies text labeled Protracheophytes. The vertical line from node 6 extends upward into a blue region labeled G-type tracheids to meet a short horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 7 near the end of the Silurian. This vertical line is near the end of the Silurian and is labeled, Lignin biosynthesis, Diversification of peroxidases. Node 7 is located within a tan “L”-shaped region between the Hydroids and other groups above and to its right. The vertical line from node 7 meets a purple horizontal line below near the end of the Silurian in the S-type tracheids region and this purple line extends right to end at the Rhyniophytes with an open circle labeled question mark near the start of the Carbnoiferous. The upper half of the vertical line from node 7 extends into the region to the upper right of the S-type tracheids. This region is labeled G-type tracheids. The upper half of the vertical line meets a short vertical line that meets node 8 in the early Devonian. The lower half of the vertical line from node 8 meets a short horizontal line that meets a blue vertical line at node 9 that begins a blue series of branching within the G-type tracheids near the end of the Silurian. All of these blue lineages are labeled Lycophytes. The blue vertical line meets a blue horizontal line below that extends horizontally to Zosterophyllys with a circle containing a question mark near the start of the Carboniferous. The blue vertical line extends upward to meet a horizontal line almost midway through the Devonian that meets a vertical line at node 10 that meets a horizontal line below to Lycopodium with a brown circle in the first quarter of the Carboniferous and a horizontal line above that meets vertical lines to Isoetes and Selaginella. Isoetes ends at a circle containing a question mark just before the start of the Carboninferous. Selaginells ends with a red filled circle just after the start of the Carboniferous and with a line extending right to the vertical blue line labeled Lycophytes. The vertical line from node 8 extends up to a short horizontal line in the region labeled P-type tracheids. This line meets a vertical line just after the start of the Devonian that meets a light tan line that meets a light tan horizontal line below to Monilophytes below and a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at three-quarters of the way across the Devonian to meet horizontal lines above and below to a red line to Angiosperms and a dark tan line to Gymnosperms, respectively. The Monilophytes and Gymnosperms both end at brown filled circles in the Carbiniferous, with the Gymnosperms slightly later than the Monilophytes. The Angiosperms end at a red filled circle at about the same time as the Monilophytes. Lines extend horizontally from the circles at the ends of the Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and Monilophytes to a vertical tan bar labeled Duphyllophytes. A line from the red circle of Selaginalla extends right to a blue vertical line labeled Lycophytes that extends along the length of the box labeled G-type tracheids. The Rhyniophytes, Lycophytes, and Euphyllophytes are all included in a light green vertical linen labeled Tracheophyhytes. Lines extend from specific groups to illustrations. These illustrations are labeled as follows: Angiosperms: A plant with yellow flowers; Gymnosperms: needles of a pine tree; Monilophytes: three groups of many small leaflets extending from a main axis and narrowing toward the tip; Selaginella: Many small, irregularly positioned lobed leaves; mosses: a clump of green on a rock; and Charophytes: four structures extending from a wider base, each with multiple green branching structures extending from each.
(credit: modification of work by Jing-Ke Weng/ResearchGate)

The phylogenetic tree shows the relationship between plants.

What is a trait shared with the common ancestor of charophytes (a group of algae) and liverworts (a group of non-vascular plants)?

  1. The common ancestor has colonized the land.
  2. The common ancestor could synthesize phenylpropanoids (a group of important organic molecules).
  3. The common ancestor could synthesize lignin (the major component of bark).
  4. The common ancestor could synthesize sporopollenin (the tough outer covering of plant spores).
34.

A phylogenetic tree is shown along a diagonal line. Each letter branches off the the diagonal line on its own line. “A” breaks of furthest to the left on the line, followed by B, C and D. E is located at the end of the diagonal line.

The tree above shows the phylogenetic relationships between four species. A scientist wishes to perform a genetic analysis on all four species in which she determines the number of genetic similarities between all four species. What would she most likely find regarding the genetic similarities between species A, B, D and E?

  1. Species D and E would share more genetic similarities with each other than with species A and B, and vice versa.
  2. Species A and E would share more genetic similarities with each other than with species B and D, and vice versa.
  3. Species D and A would share more genetic similarities with each other than with species A and B, and vice versa.
  4. Species D and B would share more genetic similarities with each other than with species A and E.
35.
What is the aim of scientists applying the maximum parsimony concept when creating phylogenetic trees?
  1. The scientists spend more time creating the phylogenetic table.
  2. Scientists find the shortest tree with the smallest number of changes.
  3. A complex, detailed phylogenetic tree diagram is created.
  4. The scientists spend more time researching the data for evolutionary connections.
36.
Dolphins and fish have similar body shapes. Appy your understanding of processes that shape similarities among organisms to state whether this feature is more likely a homologous or an analogous trait. Support your answer with relevant reasoning.
  1. Analogous-Dolphins are mammals and fish are not, thus their evolutionary paths are quite separate. They have similar body shapes because of their similar environments.
  2. Analogous-Dolphins and fish are both vertebrates, thus they share an evolutionary history, causing them to have similar body shapes.
  3. Homologous-Dolphins and fish are both vertebrates, thus they have a similar recent evolutionary history, causing them to have similar body shapes.
  4. Homologous-Dolphins are mammals and fish are not, thus their evolutionary paths are quite separate. They have similar body shapes because of their similar environments.
37.
What effect has the advancement of DNA technology had on determining phylogeny?
  1. Morphologic and molecular information often disagree.
  2. Scientists are struggling with molecular systematics.
  3. Information is not reliable because organisms appear to be closely related when they are not.
  4. Computer programs help determine relatedness using DNA sequencing, and morphologic and molecular information is more effective in determining phylogeny.
38.
(credit: modification of work by Chih-chun Janet Lin/ResearchGate)

The phylogenetic tree compares the DNA of some bacteria with the DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Based on this information, make a hypothesis about how early eukaryote cells obtained chloroplasts and mitochondria.<,/p>

  1. Early eukaryotes cells evolved mitochondria and got chloroplasts through endosymbiosis.
  2. Early eukaryotes cells evolved chloroplasts and got mitochondria through endosymbiosis.
  3. Early eukaryotes cells obtained mitochondria and chloroplasts from two separate endoysmbiosis events.
  4. Early eukaryotes cells obtained mitochondria and chloroplasts from a single endosymbiosis event.
39.
The emu in Australia and ostrich in Africa are flightless birds that look similar. One proposed hypothesis was the birds descend from an early common ancestor that spread when the continents were connected. DNA analysis shows that emus and ostriches share more genetic homology with flying birds which live in the same region than with each other. What is the best explanation for these findings?
  1. This is an example of an early shared ancestor.
  2. This is an example of convergent evolution.
  3. This is an example of random DNA homology.
  4. This is an example of divergent evolution.
40.
(credit: modification of work by Chih-chun Janet Lin/ResearchGate)

The phylogenetic tree compares the DNA of some bacteria with the DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

What is a conclusion we can reach from this information?

  1. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are closly related to each other.
  2. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a common ancestor, which was a gram negative bacteria.
  3. Chloroplasts are closely related to chlamdyia.
  4. Mitochondria are closely related to multiple gram positive bacteria.
41.
A phylogenetic tree shows relationships between plant chloroplast D N A and cyanobacteria. Nodes are numbered for reference only. The tree begins with a vertical line at the left that meets horizontal lines above and below. The lower line is labeled 66/1.00 just before it meets a vertical line that meets horizontal lines above and below labeled S y G r o E L - 2 (Synechocystis s p. P C C 6803) and S y G r o E L - 1 (Synechocystis s p. P C C 6803), respectively. The starting vertical line also meets a horizontal line above that meets a vertical line at node 1 that meets horizontal lines above and below. The lower horizontal line is labeled blue highlighted C p n 60 beta and meets a vertical line at node 2 just after the label 100/1.00. This vertical line meets a brown horizontal line below that meets a vertical line at node 3 just after 91/1.00. This vertical line meets a brown horizontal line below to P O P T R_0010s14520 (Populus trichoparpe) and a brown line above that is labeled 62/0.97 just before it meets a vertical line at node 4 that meets brown horizontal lines above and below. The upper line is labeled 100/1.00 just before it meets a brown vertical line that meets brown vertical lines above and below to C p n 60 beta 4 (Arapbidopsis thaliana) and C p n 60 beta 4 (Arabidopsis lyrata) above and below, respectively. The lower line is labeled 91/1.00 just before it meets a brown vertical line that meets brown horizontal lines above and below labeled G R M Z M 2 G 042253 (Zea mays) and 13113 (Oryza sativa), respectively. The entire group of brown lineages is labeled Angiosperms (C p n 60 beta 4). Going back to node 2, the vertical line meets an upper horizontal line that meets a vertical line at node 3 just after text reading 72/0.90. This vertical line meets an orange line below that begins a group of orange lineages and is labeled 90/1.00 just before reaching an orange vertical line at node 5 that meets horizontal lines above and below. The lower orange horizontal line is labeled C p n 60 beta (Marchantia polymorpha) and the upper horizontal line is labeled 99/1.00 right before it meets a vertical line that meets a horizontal line below to 115702 (Physcomitrella patens) and a horizontal line above that is labeled 68/0.92 just before it meets a vertical line that meets lines above and below to 110483 (Physocomitrella patens) and 176210 (Physcomitrella pattens) above and below, respectively. All of these orange highlighted lineages are labeled Bryophytes (C p n 60 beta). Going back to node 3, the vertical line extends up to meet a blue horizontal line labeled -/0.50 before meeting a blue vertical line at node 6 that begins a group of blue lineages. The vertical line extends down to a group of blue lineages labeled Monocotyledons and up to a group of blue lineages labeled Eudicotyledons. The Eudicotyledons and Monocotyledons are both classified as Angiosperms (Major C p n 60 beta). From node 6, the vertical line meets a blue horizontal line at 75/0.98 that meets a blue vertical line that meets horizontal lines above and below that each meet vertical lines just after text reading, 100/1.00. The lower horizontal line meets a vertical line above that meets horizontal lines above and below to G R M Z M 2 G 083716 (Zea mays) and O s 6 g 02380 (Oryza satvia), respectively. The upper horizontal line meets a vertical line that meets horizontal lines above and below to G R MZ M 2 zg 0 1589 (Zea mays) and O s 02 g 01280 (Oryza satvia), respectively. Going back to node 6, the blue vertical line extends up to a horizontal line labeled -/1.00 as it meets a blue vertical line at node 7 that meets blue horizontal lines above and below. The upper horizontal line meets a blue horizontal line above labeled 96/1.00 just before it meets a blue vertical line at node 8 that meets horizontal lines above and below. The upper horizontal line is labeled 100/1.00 just before it meets a blue vertical line that meets horizontal lines to C p n 60 beta 1 (Arabidopsis thaliana) and C p n 60 beta 1 (Arabidopsis lyrata) above and below, respectively. Going back to node 8, the vertical line meets a blue lower horizontal labeled 96/1.00 just before it meets a vertical line to horizontal lines above and below labeled C p n 60 beta 2 (Arabidopsis thaliana) and C p n 60 beta 2 (Arabisopsis lyrata), respectively. Going back to node 7, that meets horizontal lines above and below, the lower horizontal line is labeled -/0.82 immediately before meeting a blue vertical line at node 9. This vertical line meets horizontal lines above and below that are each labeled 100/1.00 immediately before they meet vertical lines at nodes. Each of these vertical lines meets horizontal lines above and below. The top set of horizontal lines ends at C p n 60 beta 3 (Arabidopsis thaliana) and C p n 60 beta 3 (Arabidopsis lyrata) above and below, respectively. The lower set of horizontal lines each end at P O P T R_003 s 20870 (Populus trichocarpe). Going back to node 1, the vertical line extends up to a horizontal line labeled blue highlighted C p n 60 alpha. This line is labeled 100/1.00 as it meets a vertical line at node 10. This vertical line meets horizontal lines above and below. The lower horizontal line is labeled 100/1.00 as it meets a vertical line at node 11. This vertical line meets a horizontal line above that is labeled 100/1.00 immediately before it meets a vertical line at node 12 that meets horizontal lines above and below. The upper horizontal line is labeled 100/1.00 as it meets a vertical line at a node and this vertical line meets horizontal lines above and below labeled C p n 60 alpha 2 (Arabidopsis thaliana) and C p n 60 alpha 2 (Arabidopsis lyrata), respectively. Going back to node 12, the lower horizontal line is labeled 100/1.00 just before it meets a vertical line that meets a horizontal line to P O P T R_0015 s 1570 (Populus trichocarpe) above and extends directly to P O P T R_0015 s 15190 (Populus trichocarpe) below. Going back to node 11, the vertical line extends down to a horizontal line labeled 100/1.00 as it meets a vertical line at a node. This vertical line meets horizontal lines above and below to G R M Z M 2 G 321767 (Zea mays) and O s 09 g 38980 (Oryza sativa) above and below, respectively. Going back to node 10, the vertical line extends up to meet a horizontal line that is labeled 79/0.77 as it meets node 13 at a vertical line. This vertical line extends down to meet a horizontal line that extends to 191837 (Physcomitrella patens) and extends up to meet a horizontal line labeled -/0.76 as it meets a vertical line at node 14. This vertical line extends down to a horizontal line labeled 100/1.00 right before it meets a vertical line that meets horizontal lines above and below to 134633 (Physcomitrella patens) and 116555 (Physcomitrella patens), respectively. The same vertical line extends up to meet a horizontal line that is labeled 92/0.89 just before it meets a vertical line at node 15. The vertical line at node 15 extends down to a horizontal line labeled 88/1.00 as it meets a vertical line at node 16. This vertical line meets horizontal lines above and below that are each labeled 100/1.00 immediately before meeting vertical lines that each meet horizontal lines above and below. The upper pair of horizontal lines is labeled A C 215201.3_F G 0005 (Zea mays) and O s 12 g 179 10 (Oryza sativa) above and below, respectively. The lower pair of horizontal lines is labeled G R M Z M 2 G 4 34173 (Zea mays) and O s 03 g 64210 (Oryza sativa), respectively. Going back to node 14, the vertical line extends up to a horizontal line labeled 65/0.68 as it meets a vertical line at node 16. This vertical line extends up to a horizontal line labeled 100/1.00 before it meets a vertical line that meets a horizontal line to C p n 60 alpha 1 (Arabidopsis thaliana) above and that meets C p n 60 alpha 1 (Arabidopsis lyrata) below. Going back to node 16, the line extends down to a horizontal line labeled 98/1.00 before meeting a vertical line that meets horizontal lines above and below to P O P T R_0004 s 22340 (Populus trichocarpe) and P O P T R_009 s 01470 (Populus tricocarpe) above and below, respectively.
(credit: modification of work by Toshiharu Shikanai/ResearchGate)

The phylogenetic tree compares the DNA found in plant chloroplasts with the DNA of cyanobacteria. The synechocystis at the bottom two rows are the cyanobacteria. The rest of the tree is various plant chloroplasts.

What is a conclusion you can reach based on this data?

  1. Plants and bacteria evolved analogous, but genetically different photosynthesis mechanisms at the same time.
  2. Plants and bacteria evolved the same photoysnthesis mechanisms at the same time.
  3. Plants got their photosynthesis mechanism through endosymbiosis of bacteria. This happened very early in plant evolution.
  4. Plants got their photosynthesis mechanism through endosymbiosis of bacteria. This happened late in plant evolution.
42.
A population of rodents settles on the shore of an island close to the Arctic Circle. The landscape consists mainly of rocks. If the individuals are too large, they cannot hide in crevices to escape hawks. On the other hand, small bodies do not maintain internal temperature in cold weather. Show diagrammatically the change in the population and explain what selective pressures took place.
  1. directional selection
  2. stabilizing selection
  3. disruptive selection
  4. diversifying selection
43.

Five new species of bacteria were discovered in Antarctic ice core samples. The nucleotide (base sequences of rRNA subunits were determined for the new species. The table below shows the number of nucleotide differences between the species.

Species 1 2 3 4 5
1 - 3 19 18 27
2 - 19 18 26
3 - 1 27
4 - 27

Which of the following phylogenetic trees is most consistent with the data?

44.

Draw the phylogenetic tree for the species below. Identify where on the tree each feature evolved.

.
Figure 20.20
  1. The ostrich branched off first, followed by the snake, then the frog, then the shark and then the lancelet.
  2. The shark branched off first, followed by the lancelet, then the frog, then the ostrich and then the snake.
  3. The lancelet branched off first, followed by the shark, then the frog, then the snake and then the ostrich.
  4. The lancelet branched off first, followed by the shark, then the ostrich, then the snake and then the frog.
45.
Barbara McClintock discovered transposons while working on maize genetics. What are the transposons composed of when they are able to shift from one location to another?
  1. segments of RNA
  2. Plasmids
  3. segments of DNA
  4. proteins
46.
What is horizontal gene transfer (HGT)?
  1. the proposal that eukaryotes developed a nucleus first, and then their mitochondrion
  2. the transmission of genetic material from one species to another through mechanisms other than from parent to offspring
  3. the fusion of two prokaryotic genomes
  4. the division of kingdom in the taxonomic classification
47.
Which of the following is a transfer of genes by a mechanism that does not involve asexual reproduction?
  1. web of life
  2. meiosis
  3. gene fusion
  4. horizontal gene transfer
48.
Which of the following describes small, virus-like particles that act as a mechanism of gene transfer between prokaryotes?
  1. gene transfer agents
  2. horizontal gene transfer
  3. vertical gene transfer
  4. basal taxon
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