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Biology for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
54.
What would Chase and Hershey have concluded if the supernatant contained radioactive labeled-phosphorus?
  1. DNA was the primary source of heritable information.
  2. RNA was the primary source of heritable information.
  3. Protein was the primary source of heritable information.
  4. Phages were the primary source of heritable information.
55.
Which piece of evidence supports that the material Miescher discovered was DNA?
  1. The precipitate contained sulfur.
  2. The precipitate contained oxygen.
  3. The precipitate contained phosphorus.
  4. The precipitate contained protein.
56.
Explain how forensic scientists are able to use DNA analysis to identify individuals.
  1. Comparison of DNA from a known source or individual with analysis of the sequence of an unknown sample of DNA allows scientists to find out if both of them are similar or not.
  2. DNA from the unknown sample is sequenced and analyzed. The result of the analysis is then matched with any random population. The matching individual then helps in forensics.
  3. Comparison of DNA from a known source or individual with analysis of the sequence of bases in strands of an unknown sample of RNA allows scientists to find out if both of them are similar or not.
  4. Comparison of DNA from a known source or individual with analysis of the sugars and phosphates in strands of an unknown sample of DNA allows scientists to find out if both of them are similar or not.
57.
Discuss the contributions of Francis Crick, James Watson, and Rosalind Franklin to the discovery of the structure of DNA.
  1. Rosalind Franklin used X-ray diffraction methods to demonstrate the helical nature of DNA, while Watson and Crick formulated the double stranded structural model of DNA.
  2. Rosalind Franklin, Watson and Crick first employed the technique of X-ray diffraction to understand the storage of DNA. Since it did not work out, Watson and Crick then ran experiments to ascertain the DNA structure.
  3. Rosalind Franklin, Watson and Crick used X-ray diffraction methods to demonstrate the helical nature of DNA, while Rosalind Franklin formulated the double stranded structural model of DNA.
  4. Watson and Crick used X-ray diffraction methods to demonstrate the helical nature of DNA, while Rosalind Franklin formulated the double stranded structural model of DNA.
58.
What do RNA and DNA have in common?
  1. Both contain four different nucleotides.
  2. Both are usually double-stranded molecules.
  3. Both contain adenine and uracil.
  4. Both contain ribose.
59.
Which of the following would be a good application of plasmid transformation?
  1. to make copies of DNA
  2. to isolate a change in a single nucleotide
  3. to separate DNA fragments
  4. to sequence DNA
60.
Explain how the components of DNA fit together.
  1. DNA is composed of nucleotides, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. DNA is a double helical structure in which complementary base pairing occurs. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. Adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds and cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds. The two individual strands of DNA are held together by covalent bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and sugar of the next. The two strands run antiparallel to each other.
  2. DNA is composed of nucleotides, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. DNA is a double helical structure in which complementary base pairing occurs. Adenine pairs with cytosine and guanine pairs with thymine. Adenine and cytosine form two hydrogen bonds and guanine and thymine form three hydrogen bonds. The two individual strands of DNA are held together by covalent bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and sugar of the next. The two strands run antiparallel to each other.
  3. DNA is composed of nucleotides, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. DNA is a double helical structure in which complementary base pairing occurs. Adenine pairs with cytosine and guanine pairs with thymine. Adenine and cytosine form three hydrogen bonds and guanine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds. The two individual strands of DNA are held together by covalent bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and sugar of the next. The two strands run antiparallel to each other.
  4. DNA is composed of nucleotides, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. DNA is a double helical structure in which complementary base pairing occurs. Adenine pairs with cytosine and guanine pairs with thymine. Adenine and cytosine form three hydrogen bonds and guanine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds. The two individual strands of DNA are held together by covalent bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and sugar of the next. The two strands run parallel to each other.
61.
Describe the Sanger DNA sequencing method used for the human genome sequencing project.
  1. A DNA sample is denatured by heating and then put into four tubes. A primer, DNA polymerase and all four nucleotides are added. Limited quantities of one of the four dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) are added to each tube respectively. Each one of them carries a specific fluorescent label. Chain elongation continues until a fluorescent ddNTP is added to the growing chain, after which chain termination occurs. Gel electrophoresis is performed and the length of each base is detected by laser scanners with wavelengths specific to the four different ddNTPS’s.
  2. A DNA sample is denatured by heating and then put into four tubes. A primer, RNA polymerase and all four nucleotides are added. Limited quantities of one of the four dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) are added to each tube respectively. Each one of them carries a specific fluorescent label. Chain elongation continues until a fluorescent ddNTP is added to the growing chain, after which chain termination occurs. Gel electrophoresis is performed and the length of each base is detected by laser scanners with wavelengths specific to the four different ddNTPS’s.
  3. A DNA sample is denatured by heating and then put into four tubes. A primer, DNA polymerase and all four nucleotides are added. Limited quantities of one of the four dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) are added to each tube respectively. Each one of them carries a specific fluorescent label. Chain elongation continues until a fluorescent ddNTP is removed from the growing chain, after which chain termination occurs. Gel electrophoresis is performed and the length of each base is detected by laser scanners with wavelengths specific to the four different ddNTPS’s.
  4. A DNA sample is denatured by heating and then put into four tubes. A primer, DNA polymerase and all four nucleotides are added. Limited quantities of one of the four deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) are added to each tube respectively. Each one of them carries a specific fluorescent label. Chain elongation continues until a fluorescent dNTP is added the growing chain, after which chain termination occurs. Gel electrophoresis is performed and the length of each base is detected by laser scanners with wavelengths specific to the four different dNTPS’s.
62.

Double stranded DNA showing a bubble and the copying of a nucleic acid polymer in the 5' to 3' direction. The nucleic acid polymer contains the sequence UAGCGCUGUACC.

What process is illustrated in the figure?

  1. transcription
  2. mutation
  3. excision
  4. translation
63.
Describe how the model of DNA replication illustrates the function of topoisomerase.
  1. Topoisomerase relieves the pressure that results from supercoiling by breaking and reforming DNA’s phosphate backbone ahead of the replication fork.
  2. Topoisomerase increases the pressure to increase supercoiling by breaking and reforming DNA’s phosphate backbone ahead of the replication fork.
  3. Topoisomerase relieves the pressure that results from supercoiling by breaking and reforming DNA’s nucleotide base pairs ahead of the replication fork.
  4. Topoisomerase relieves the pressure that results from separation of DNA strands by breaking and reforming DNA’s phosphate backbone ahead of the replication fork.
64.
Flamingos have genotypes for white feathers yet often appear with pink feathers within the same population. What is most likely affecting the phenotype of some flamingos, causing their feathers to turn pink in an isolated population?
  1. weather variations
  2. dietary changes
  3. DNA mutations
  4. translation failure
65.
What can be the result of DNA failing to undergo repair after too much UV exposure?
  1. second degree burns
  2. a malignant melanoma
  3. a breakdown of deep layers of the skin
  4. a sun burn
66.
Identify the type of change that can occur in the DNA of a chromosome that is termed a chromosomal mutation.
  1. substitution
  2. translocation
  3. missense
  4. transversion
67.
Explain why patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosa are more prone to cancer than the rest of the population.
  1. Xeroderma Pigmentosa patients cannot employ the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. When these patients are exposed to UV light, thymine dimers are formed and they are not able to repair this defect. These dimers distort the structure of DNA and cause them to have a high risk of contracting skin cancer.
  2. Xeroderma Pigmentosa patients can employ the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. When these patients are exposed to UV light, the thymine dimers are formed and they are able to repair this defect. These dimers do not distort the structure of DNA and they have moderate risk of contracting skin cancer.
  3. Xeroderma Pigmentosa patients cannot employ the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. When these patients are exposed to UV light, the adjacent adenine forms dimers and they are not able to repair this defect. These dimers distort the structure of DNA and they have high risk of contracting skin cancer.
  4. Xeroderma Pigmentosa patients cannot employ the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. When these patients are exposed to UV light, the adjacent thymine cannot form thymine dimers and they are not able to repair this defect. The non-formation of dimers distorts the structure of DNA and they have high risk of contracting skin cancer.
68.
You are looking at two fragments of DNA. Both have the sequence CATTCTG on one strand and GTAAGAC on the other. One of the fragments is exposed to UV light, the other is not. What will happen to the fragments and how might these mutations be repaired?
  1. The fragment exposed to UV light contains thymine dimers. Thymines lying adjacent to each other can form thymine dimers when exposed to UV light. They can be repaired by nucleotide excision.
  2. The fragment exposed to UV light contains adenine dimers. Adenines lying adjacent to each other can form dimers when exposed to UV light. They can be repaired by nucleotide excision.
  3. The fragment exposed to UV light contains thymine dimers. Thymines lying parallel to each other can form thymine dimers when exposed to UV light. They can be repaired by nucleotide excision.
  4. The fragment exposed to UV light contains thymine dimers. Thymines lying adjacent to each other can form thymine dimers when exposed to UV light. They can be synthesized by nucleotide excision.
69.
Discuss how mutations can increase variation within a population.
  1. Substitution mutations may cause a different amino acid to be placed at a specific location, causing small changes in the protein. Frameshift mutations usually cause multiple amino acid changes, increasing chances that a new protein will form, leading to radically different characteristics in the offspring.
  2. Substitution mutations may cause multiple amino acid changes, increasing chances that a new protein will form, leading to radically different characteristics in the offspring. Frameshift mutations may cause a different amino acid to be placed at a specific location, causing small changes in a protein.
  3. Substitution mutations may cause a different amino acid to be placed at a specific location, resulting in major changes to the protein and leading to radically different characteristics in the offspring. Frameshift mutations cause multiple amino acid differences in a protein, leading to small changes in the protein.
  4. Substitution mutations result in a different amino acid being placed at a specific position in a protein, causing small changes. Silent mutations could result in new characteristics possessed by an offspring when a stop codon is substituted for an amino acid.
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